National Kidney Foundation. K/DOQI clinical practice guidelines for chronic kidney disease: evaluation, classification, and stratification. Am J Kidney Dis 2002; 39: S1–266.
Astor BC, Matsushita K, Gansevoort RT et al. Lower estimated glomerular filtration rate and higher albuminuria are associated with mortality and end-stage renal disease. A collaborative meta-analysis of kidney disease population cohorts. Kidney Int 2011; 79: 1331–1340.
Gansevoort RT, Matsushita K, van der Velde M et al. Lower estimated GFR and higher albuminuria are associated with adverse kidney outcomes. A collaborative meta-analysis of general and high-risk population cohorts. Kidney Int 2011; 80: 93–104.
Matsushita K, van der Velde M, Astor BC et al. Association of estimated glomerular filtration rate and albuminuria with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in general population cohorts: a collaborative meta-analysis. Lancet 2010; 375: 2073–2081.
van der Velde M, Matsushita K, Coresh J et al. Lower estimated glomerular filtration rate and higher albuminuria are associated with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. A collaborative meta-analysis of high-risk population cohorts. Kidney Int 2011; 79: 1341–1352.
Levey AS, Stevens LA, Coresh J. Conceptual model of CKD: applications and implications. Am J Kidney Dis 2009; 53: S4–16.
KDIGO AKI Work Group. KDIGO clinical practice guideline for acute kidney injury. Kidney inter., Suppl. 2012; 2: 1–138.
KDIGO GN Work Group. KDIGO clinical practice guideline for glomerulonephritis. Kidney inter., Suppl. 2012; 2: 139–274.
KDIGO CKD-MBD Work Group. KDIGO clinical practice guideline for the diagnosis, evaluation, prevention, and treatment of Chronic Kidney Disease-Mineral and Bone Disorder (CKD-MBD). Kidney Int Suppl 2009; 76(Suppl 113): S1–130.
KDIGO BP Work Group. KDIGO clinical practice guideline for the management of blood pressure in chronic kidney disease. Kidney inter., Suppl. 2012; 2: 337–414.
KDIGO Anemia Work Group. KDIGO clinical practice guideline for anemia in chronic kidney disease. Kidney inter., Suppl. 2012; 2: 279–335.
Herzog CA, Asinger RW, Berger AK et al. Cardiovascular disease in chronic kidney disease. A clinical update from Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO). Kidney Int 2011; 80: 572–586.
Matzke GR, Aronoff GR, Atkinson AJ, Jr. et al. Drug dosing consideration in patients with acute and chronic kidney disease-a clinical update from Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO). Kidney Int 2011; 80: 1122–1137.
Hsu CY, Ordonez JD, Chertow GM et al. The risk of acute renal failure in patients with chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int 2008; 74: 101–107.
Hailpern SM, Melamed ML, Cohen HW et al. Moderate chronic kidney disease and cognitive function in adults 20 to 59 years of age: Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). J Am Soc Nephrol 2007; 18: 2205–2213.
James MT, Hemmelgarn BR, Wiebe N et al. Glomerular filtration rate, proteinuria, and the incidence and consequences of acute kidney injury: a cohort study. Lancet 2010; 376: 2096–2103.
James MT, Quan H, Tonelli M et al. CKD and risk of hospitalization and death with pneumonia. Am J Kidney Dis 2009; 54: 24–32.
Wilhelm-Leen ER, Hall YN, M KT et al. Frailty and chronic kidney disease: the Third National Health and Nutrition Evaluation Survey. Am J Med 2009; 122: 664–671 e662.
Levey AS, Coresh J. Chronic kidney disease. Lancet 2012; 379: 165–180.
Wesson L. Physiology of the human kidney. Grune & Stratton: New York, 1969.
Rowe JW, Andres R, Tobin JD. Letter: Age-adjusted standards for creatinine clearance. Ann Intern Med 1976; 84: 567–569.
Poggio ED, Rule AD, Tanchanco R et al. Demographic and clinical characteristics associated with glomerular filtration rates in living kidney donors. Kidney Int 2009; 75: 1079–1087.
Rule AD, Amer H, Cornell LD et al. The association between age and nephrosclerosis on renal biopsy among healthy adults. Ann Intern Med 2010; 152: 561–567.
Barai S, Gambhir S, Prasad N et al. Levels of GFR and protein-induced hyperfiltration in kidney donors: a single-center experience in India. Am J Kidney Dis 2008; 51: 407–414.
Eastwood JB, Kerry SM, Plange-Rhule J et al. Assessment of GFR by four methods in adults in Ashanti, Ghana: the need for an eGFR equation for lean African populations. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2010; 25: 2178–2187.
Jafar TH, Islam M, Jessani S et al. Level and determinants of kidney function in a South Asian population in Pakistan. Am J Kidney Dis 2011; 58: 764–772.
Stevens LA, Coresh J, Greene T et al. Assessing kidney function--measured and estimated glomerular filtration rate. N Engl J Med 2006; 354: 2473–2483.
Remuzzi G, Benigni A, Remuzzi A. Mechanisms of progression and regression of renal lesions of chronic nephropathies and diabetes. J Clin Invest 2006; 116: 288–296.
KDIGO Transplant Work Group. KDIGO clinical practice guideline for the care of kidney transplant recipients. Am J Transplant 2009; 9 (Suppl 3): S1–155.
Levey AS, de Jong PE, Coresh J et al. The definition, classification, and prognosis of chronic kidney disease: a KDIGO Controversies Conference report. Kidney Int 2011; 80: 17–28.
Levey AS, Eckardt KU, Tsukamoto Y et al. Definition and classification of chronic kidney disease: a position statement from Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO). Kidney Int 2005; 67: 2089–2100.
Eckardt KU, Berns JS, Rocco MV et al. Definition and classification of CKD: the debate should be about patient prognosis--a position statement from KDOQI and KDIGO. Am J Kidney Dis 2009; 53: 915–920.
Eknoyan G. Chronic kidney disease definition and classification: no need for a rush to judgment. Kidney Int 2009; 75: 1015–1018.
El Nahas M. Cardio-Kidney-Damage: a unifying concept. Kidney Int 2010; 78: 14–18.
Levey AS, Astor BC, Stevens LA et al. Chronic kidney disease, diabetes, and hypertension: what's in a name? Kidney Int 2010; 78: 19–22.
Winearls CG, Glassock RJ. Dissecting and refining the staging of chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int 2009; 75: 1009–1014.
Silva FG. The aging kidney: a review -- part I. Int Urol Nephrol 2005; 37: 185–205.
Silva FG. The aging kidney: a review--part II. Int Urol Nephrol 2005; 37: 419–432.
Weinstein JR, Anderson S. The aging kidney: physiological changes. Adv Chronic Kidney Dis 2010; 17: 302–307.
King AJ, Levey AS. Dietary protein and renal function. J Am Soc Nephrol 1993; 3: 1723–1737.
Vehaskari VM. Orthostatic proteinuria. Arch Dis Child 1982; 57: 729–730.
Seikaly MG, Ho PL, Emmett L et al. Chronic renal insufficiency in children: the 2001 Annual Report of the NAPRTCS. Pediatr Nephrol 2003; 18: 796–804.
Hogg RJ, Furth S, Lemley KV et al. National Kidney Foundation's Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative clinical practice guidelines for chronic kidney disease in children and adolescents: evaluation, classification, and stratification. Pediatrics 2003; 111: 1416–1421.
Schwartz GJ, Brion LP, Spitzer A. The use of plasma creatinine concentration for estimating glomerular filtration rate in infants, children, and adolescents. Pediatr Clin North Am 1987; 34: 571–590.
Aperia A, Broberger O, Elinder G et al. Postnatal development of renal function in pre-term and full-term infants. Acta Paediatr Scand 1981; 70: 183–187.
Bueva A, Guignard JP. Renal function in preterm neonates. Pediatr Res 1994; 36: 572–577.
Fetterman GH, Shuplock NA, Philipp FJ et al. The Growth and Maturation of Human Glomeruli and Proximal Convolutions from Term to Adulthood: Studies by Microdissection. Pediatrics 1965; 35: 601–619.
Guignard JP, Torrado A, Da Cunha O et al. Glomerular filtration rate in the first three weeks of life. J Pediatr 1975; 87: 268–272.
Haycock GB. Development of glomerular filtration and tubular sodium reabsorption in the human fetus and newborn. Br J Urol 1998; 81 (Suppl 2): 33–38.
Gallini F, Maggio L, Romagnoli C et al. Progression of renal function in preterm neonates with gestational age < or = 32 weeks. Pediatr Nephrol 2000; 15: 119–124.
Vieux R, Hascoet JM, Merdariu D et al. Glomerular filtration rate reference values in very preterm infants. Pediatrics 2010; 125: e1186–1192.
Schwartz GJ, Furth SL. Glomerular filtration rate measurement and estimation in chronic kidney disease. Pediatr Nephrol 2007; 22: 1839–1848.
Waters AM. Chapter 6, Part 2: Functional development of the nephron. In: Geary DF, Schaefer F (eds). Comprehensive Pediatric Nephrology, Mosby Elsevier: Philadelphia, PA, 2008, pp 111–129.
Langlois V. Chapter 2: Laboratory evaluation at different ages. In: Geary DF, Schaefer F (eds) Comprehensive Pediatric Nephrology, Mosby Elsevier: Philadelphia, PA, 2008, pp 39–54.
Furth SL, Cole SR, Moxey-Mims M et al. Design and methods of the Chronic Kidney Disease in Children (CKiD) prospective cohort study. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2006; 1: 1006–1015.
Copelovitch L, Warady BA, Furth SL. Insights from the Chronic Kidney Disease in Children (CKiD) study. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2011; 6: 2047–2053.
Seliger SL, Zhan M, Hsu VD et al. Chronic kidney disease adversely influences patient safety. J Am Soc Nephrol 2008; 19: 2414–2419.
Go AS, Chertow GM, Fan D et al. Chronic kidney disease and the risks of death, cardiovascular events, and hospitalization. N Engl J Med 2004; 351: 1296–1305.
Coresh J, Astor BC, Greene T et al. Prevalence of chronic kidney disease and decreased kidney function in the adult US population: Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Am J Kidney Dis 2003; 41: 1–12.
Burgert TS, Dziura J, Yeckel C et al. Microalbuminuria in pediatric obesity: prevalence and relation to other cardiovascular risk factors. Int J Obes (Lond) 2006; 30: 273–280.
Csernus K, Lanyi E, Erhardt E et al. Effect of childhood obesity and obesity-related cardiovascular risk factors on glomerular and tubular protein excretion. Eur J Pediatr 2005; 164: 44–49.
Houser MT, Jahn MF, Kobayashi A et al. Assessment of urinary protein excretion in the adolescent: effect of body position and exercise. J Pediatr 1986; 109: 556–561.
Trachtenberg F, Barregard L. The effect of age, sex, and race on urinary markers of kidney damage in children. Am J Kidney Dis 2007; 50: 938–945.
Brem AS. Neonatal hematuria and proteinuria. Clin Perinatol 1981; 8: 321–332.
Hogg RJ, Portman RJ, Milliner D et al. Evaluation and management of proteinuria and nephrotic syndrome in children: recommendations from a pediatric nephrology panel established at the National Kidney Foundation conference on proteinuria, albuminuria, risk, assessment, detection, and elimination (PARADE). Pediatrics 2000; 105: 1242–1249.
Jones CA, Francis ME, Eberhardt MS et al. Microalbuminuria in the US population: third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Am J Kidney Dis 2002; 39: 445–459.
Levey AS, Coresh J. Should the K/DOQI definition of chronic kidney disease be changed? Am J Kidney Dis 2003; 42: 626–630.
Uhlig K, Levey AS. Developing guidelines for chronic kidney disease: we should include all of the outcomes. Ann Intern Med 2012; 156: 599–601.
North American Pediatric Renal Trials and Collaborative Studies. NAPRTCS 2008 Annual Report. (https://web.emmes.com/study/ped/annlrept/Annual%20Report%20-2008.pdf). Accessed September 7, 2012.
Ardissino G, Dacco V, Testa S et al. Epidemiology of chronic renal failure in children: data from the ItalKid project. Pediatrics 2003; 111: e382–387.
Pierce CB, Cox C, Saland JM et al. Methods for characterizing differences in longitudinal glomerular filtration rate changes between children with glomerular chronic kidney disease and those with nonglomerular chronic kidney disease. Am J Epidemiol 2011; 174: 604–612.
Furth SL, Abraham AG, Jerry-Fluker J et al. Metabolic abnormalities, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and GFR decline in children with chronic kidney disease. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2011; 6: 2132–2140.
Wingen AM, Fabian-Bach C, Schaefer F et al. Randomised multicentre study of a low-protein diet on the progression of chronic renal failure in children. European Study Group of Nutritional Treatment of Chronic Renal Failure in Childhood. Lancet 1997; 349: 1117–1123.
Staples AO, Greenbaum LA, Smith JM et al. Association between clinical risk factors and progression of chronic kidney disease in children. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2010; 5: 2172–2179.
Ardissino G, Testa S, Dacco V et al. Proteinuria as a predictor of disease progression in children with hypodysplastic nephropathy. Data from the Ital Kid Project. Pediatr Nephrol 2004; 19: 172–177.
Wong CS, Pierce CB, Cole SR et al. Association of proteinuria with race, cause of chronic kidney disease, and glomerular filtration rate in the chronic kidney disease in children study. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2009; 4: 812–819.
Ardissino G, Testa S, Dacco V et al. Puberty is associated with increased deterioration of renal function in patients with CKD: data from the ItalKid Project. Arch Dis Child 2012; 97: 885–888.
Querfeld U, Anarat A, Bayazit AK et al. The Cardiovascular Comorbidity in Children with Chronic Kidney Disease (4C) study: objectives, design, and methodology. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2010; 5: 1642–1648.
Stevens LA, Levey AS. Measured GFR as a confirmatory test for estimated GFR. J Am Soc Nephrol 2009; 20: 2305–2313.
Schwartz GJ, Munoz A, Schneider MF et al. New equations to estimate GFR in children with CKD. J Am Soc Nephrol 2009; 20: 629–637.
Myers GL, Miller WG, Coresh J et al. Recommendations for improving serum creatinine measurement: a report from the Laboratory Working Group of the National Kidney Disease Education Program. Clin Chem 2006; 52: 5–18.
Miller WG. Estimating glomerular filtration rate. Clin Chem Lab Med 2009; 47: 1017–1019.
Kilpatrick ES, Verrill H. A national audit of estimated glomerular filtration rate and proteinuria reporting in the UK. Ann Clin Biochem 2011; 48: 558–561.
McIntosh JF, Moller E, Van Slyke DD. Studies of urea excretion. III: The influence of body size on urea output. J Clin Invest 1928; 6: 467–483.
Earley A, Miskulin D, Lamb EJ et al. Estimating equations for glomerular filtration rate in the era of creatinine standardization: a systematic review. Ann Intern Med 2012; 156: 785–795.
Levey AS, Coresh J, Greene T et al. Using standardized serum creatinine values in the modification of diet in renal disease study equation for estimating glomerular filtration rate. Ann Intern Med 2006; 145: 247–254.
Levey AS, Stevens LA, Schmid CH et al. A new equation to estimate glomerular filtration rate. Ann Intern Med 2009; 150: 604–612.
Horio M, Imai E, Yasuda Y et al. Modification of the CKD epidemiology collaboration (CKD-EPI) equation for Japanese: accuracy and use for population estimates. Am J Kidney Dis 2010; 56: 32–38.
Imai E, Horio M, Nitta K et al. Estimation of glomerular filtration rate by the MDRD study equation modified for Japanese patients with chronic kidney disease. Clin Exp Nephrol 2007; 11: 41–50.
Praditpornsilpa K, Townamchai N, Chaiwatanarat T et al. The need for robust validation for MDRD-based glomerular filtration rate estimation in various CKD populations. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2011; 26: 2780–2785.
Matsuo S, Imai E, Horio M et al. Revised equations for estimated GFR from serum creatinine in Japan. Am J Kidney Dis 2009; 53: 982–992.
Levey AS, Greene T, Kusek J et al. A simplified equation to predict glomerular filtration rate from serum creatinine. J Am Soc Nephrol 2000; 11: 155A.
Ma YC, Zuo L, Chen JH et al. Modified glomerular filtration rate estimating equation for Chinese patients with chronic kidney disease. J Am Soc Nephrol 2006; 17: 2937–2944.
Levey AS, Bosch JP, Lewis JB et al. A more accurate method to estimate glomerular filtration rate from serum creatinine: a new prediction equation. Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study Group. Ann Intern Med 1999; 130: 461–470.
Murata K, Baumann NA, Saenger AK et al. Relative performance of the MDRD and CKD-EPI equations for estimating glomerular filtration rate among patients with varied clinical presentations. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2011; 6: 1963–1972.
Lane BR, Demirjian S, Weight CJ et al. Performance of the chronic kidney disease-epidemiology study equations for estimating glomerular filtration rate before and after nephrectomy. J Urol 2010; 183: 896–901.
Michels WM, Grootendorst DC, Verduijn M et al. Performance of the Cockcroft-Gault, MDRD, and new CKD-EPI formulas in relation to GFR, age, and body size. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2010; 5: 1003–1009.
Tent H, Rook M, Stevens LA et al. Renal function equations before and after living kidney donation: a within-individual comparison of performance at different levels of renal function. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2010; 5: 1960–1968.
Kukla A, El-Shahawi Y, Leister E et al. GFR-estimating models in kidney transplant recipients on a steroid-free regimen. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2010; 25: 1653–1661.
White CA, Akbari A, Doucette S et al. Estimating glomerular filtration rate in kidney transplantation: is the new chronic kidney disease epidemiology collaboration equation any better? Clin Chem 2010; 56: 474–477.
Poge U, Gerhardt T, Stoffel-Wagner B et al. Validation of the CKD-EPI formula in patients after renal transplantation. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2011; 26: 4104–4108.
Jones GR, Imam SK. Validation of the revised MDRD formula and the original Cockcroft and Gault formula for estimation of the glomerular filtration rate using Australian data. Pathology 2009; 41: 379–382.
Jones GR. Use of the CKD-EPI equation for estimation of GFR in an Australian cohort. Pathology 2010; 42: 487–488.
Cirillo M, Lombardi C, Luciano MG et al. Estimation of GFR: a comparison of new and established equations. Am J Kidney Dis 2010; 56: 802–804.
Eriksen BO, Mathisen UD, Melsom T et al. Cystatin C is not a better estimator of GFR than plasma creatinine in the general population. Kidney Int 2010; 78: 1305–1311.
Redal-Baigorri B, Stokholm KH, Rasmussen K et al. Estimation of kidney function in cancer patients. Dan Med Bull 2011; 58: A4236.
Matsushita K, Mahmoodi BK, Woodward M et al. Comparison of risk prediction using the CKD-EPI equation and the MDRD study equation for estimated glomerular filtration rate. JAMA 2012; 307: 1941–1951.
Rule AD, Teo BW. GFR estimation in Japan and China: what accounts for the difference? Am J Kidney Dis 2009; 53: 932–935.
Stevens LA, Claybon MA, Schmid CH et al. Evaluation of the Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration equation for estimating the glomerular filtration rate in multiple ethnicities. Kidney Int 2011; 79: 555–562.
Yeo Y, Han DJ, Moon DH et al. Suitability of the IDMS-traceable MDRD equation method to estimate GFR in early postoperative renal transplant recipients. Nephron Clin Pract 2010; 114: c108–117.
van Deventer HE, George JA, Paiker JE et al. Estimating glomerular filtration rate in black South Africans by use of the modification of diet in renal disease and Cockcroft-Gault equations. Clin Chem 2008; 54: 1197–1202.
Teo BW, Xu H, Wang D et al. GFR estimating equations in a multiethnic Asian population. Am J Kidney Dis 2011; 58: 56–63.
Inker LA, Schmid CH, Tighiouart H et al. Estimating glomerular filtration rate from serum creatinine and cystatin C. N Engl J Med 2012; 367: 20–29.
Peralta CA, Shlipak MG, Judd S et al. Detection of chronic kidney disease with creatinine, cystatin C, and urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio and association with progression to end-stage renal disease and mortality. JAMA 2011; 305: 1545–1552.
Schwartz GJ, Schneider MF, Maier PS et al. Improved equations estimating GFR in children with chronic kidney disease using an immunonephelometric determination of cystatin C. Kidney Int 2012; 82: 445–453.
Inker LA, Eckfeldt J, Levey AS et al. Expressing the CKD-EPI (Chronic Kidney Disease Epidemiology Collaboration) cystatin C equations for estimating GFR with standardized serum cystatin C values. Am J Kidney Dis 2011; 58: 682–684.
Stevens LA, Coresh J, Schmid CH et al. Estimating GFR using serum cystatin C alone and in combination with serum creatinine: a pooled analysis of 3,418 individuals with CKD. Am J Kidney Dis 2008; 51: 395–406.
Zappitelli M, Parvex P, Joseph L et al. Derivation and validation of cystatin C-based prediction equations for GFR in children. Am J Kidney Dis 2006; 48: 221–230.
Filler G, Lepage N. Should the Schwartz formula for estimation of GFR be replaced by cystatin C formula? Pediatr Nephrol 2003; 18: 981–985.
Hoek FJ, Kemperman FA, Krediet RT. A comparison between cystatin C, plasma creatinine and the Cockcroft and Gault formula for the estimation of glomerular filtration rate. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2003; 18: 2024–2031.
Kwong YT, Stevens LA, Selvin E et al. Imprecision of urinary iothalamate clearance as a gold-standard measure of GFR decreases the diagnostic accuracy of kidney function estimating equations. Am J Kidney Dis 2010; 56: 39–49.
Lamb EJ, Price CP. Kidney function tests. In: Burtis CA, Ashwood E, (eds.) Bruns DE. Tietz Textbook of Clinical Chemistry and Molecular Diagnostics, 5th edition, Elsevier, 2012, pp 669–708.
Ballantyne FC, Gibbons J, O’Reilly DS. Urine albumin should replace total protein for the assessment of glomerular proteinuria. Ann Clin Biochem 1993; 30 (Pt 1): 101–103.
Lamb EJ, MacKenzie F, Stevens PE. How should proteinuria be detected and measured? Ann Clin Biochem 2009; 46: 205–217.
Newman DJ, Thakkar H, Medcalf EA et al. Use of urine albumin measurement as a replacement for total protein. Clin Nephrol 1995; 43: 104–109.
Hallan SI, Ritz E, Lydersen S et al. Combining GFR and albuminuria to classify CKD improves prediction of ESRD. J Am Soc Nephrol 2009; 20: 1069–1077.
Brantsma AH, Bakker SJ, Hillege HL et al. Cardiovascular and renal outcome in subjects with K/DOQI stage 1–3 chronic kidney disease: the importance of urinary albumin excretion. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2008; 23: 3851–3858.
Dawnay A, Wilson AG, Lamb E et al. Microalbuminuria in systemic sclerosis. Ann Rheum Dis 1992; 51: 384–388.
Gross JL, de Azevedo MJ, Silveiro SP et al. Diabetic nephropathy: diagnosis, prevention, and treatment. Diabetes Care 2005; 28: 164–176.
Ninomiya T, Perkovic V, de Galan BE et al. Albuminuria and kidney function independently predict cardiovascular and renal outcomes in diabetes. J Am Soc Nephrol 2009; 20: 1813–1821.
Shihabi ZK, Konen JC, O’Connor ML. Albuminuria vs urinary total protein for detecting chronic renal disorders. Clin Chem 1991; 37: 621–624.
Martin H. Laboratory measurement of urine albumin and urine total protein in screening for proteinuria in chronic kidney disease. Clin Biochem Rev 2011; 32: 97–102.
Waugh J, Bell SC, Kilby M et al. Effect of concentration and biochemical assay on the accuracy of urine dipsticks in hypertensive pregnancies. Hypertens Pregnancy 2001; 20: 205–217.
Waugh J, Bell SC, Kilby MD et al. Urine protein estimation in hypertensive pregnancy: which thresholds and laboratory assay best predict clinical outcome? Hypertens Pregnancy 2005; 24: 291–302.
McElderry LA, Tarbit IF, Cassells-Smith AJ. Six methods for urinary protein compared. Clin Chem 1982; 28: 356–360.
Nishi HH, Elin RJ. Three turbidimetric methods for determining total protein compared. Clin Chem 1985; 31: 1377–1380.
Sedmak JJ, Grossberg SE. A rapid, sensitive, and versatile assay for protein using Coomassie brilliant blue G250. Anal Biochem 1977; 79: 544–552.
de Keijzer MH, Klasen IS, Branten AJ et al. Infusion of plasma expanders may lead to unexpected results in urinary protein assays. Scand J Clin Lab Invest 1999; 59: 133–137.
Marshall T, Williams KM. Extent of aminoglycoside interference in the pyrogallol red-molybdate protein assay depends on the concentration of sodium oxalate in the dye reagent. Clin Chem 2004; 50: 934–935.
Yilmaz FM, Yucel D. Effect of addition of hemolysate on urine and cerebrospinal fluid assays for protein. Clin Chem 2006; 52: 152–153.
Chambers RE, Bullock DG, Whicher JT. External quality assessment of total urinary protein estimation in the United Kingdom. Ann Clin Biochem 1991; 28 (Pt 5): 467–473.
Heick HM, Begin-Heick N, Acharya C et al. Automated determination of urine and cerebrospinal fluid proteins with Coomassie Brilliant Blue and the Abbott ABA-100. Clin Biochem 1980; 13: 81–83.
Marshall T, Williams KM. Total protein determination in urine: elimination of a differential response between the coomassie blue and pyrogallol red protein dye-binding assays. Clin Chem 2000; 46: 392–398.
Miller WG. Urine albumin: Recommendations for standardization. Scand J Clin Lab Invest Suppl 2008; 241: 71–72.
Miller WG, Bruns DE, Hortin GL et al. Current issues in measurement and reporting of urinary albumin excretion. Clin Chem 2009; 55: 24–38.
Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency. MHRA 04086 Point of care devices for the quantitation of microalbuminuria. 2004.
Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency. MHRA 04098. Point of care devices for the detection and semi-quantitation of microalbuminuria. 2004.
Parsons M, Newman DJ, Pugia M et al. Performance of a reagent strip device for quantitation of the urine albumin: creatinine ratio in a point of care setting. Clin Nephrol 1999; 51: 220–227.
Parsons MP, Newman DJ, Newall RG et al. Validation of a point-of-care assay for the urinary albumin:creatinine ratio. Clin Chem 1999; 45: 414–417.
Graziani MS, Gambaro G, Mantovani L et al. Diagnostic accuracy of a reagent strip for assessing urinary albumin excretion in the general population. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2009; 24: 1490–1494.
Guy M, Newall R, Borzomato J et al. Diagnostic accuracy of the urinary albumin: creatinine ratio determined by the CLINITEK Microalbumin and DCA 2000+ for the rule-out of albuminuria in chronic kidney disease. Clin Chim Acta 2009; 399: 54–58.
Waugh JJ, Bell SC, Kilby MD et al. Optimal bedside urinalysis for the detection of proteinuria in hypertensive pregnancy: a study of diagnostic accuracy. BJOG 2005; 112: 412–417.
Iseki K, Iseki C, Ikemiya Y et al. Risk of developing end-stage renal disease in a cohort of mass screening. Kidney Int 1996; 49: 800–805.
Kaplan RE, Springate JE, Feld LG. Screening dipstick urinalysis: a time to change. Pediatrics 1997; 100: 919–921.
Kitagawa T. Lessons learned from the Japanese nephritis screening study. Pediatr Nephrol 1988; 2: 256–263.
Boulware LE, Jaar BG, Tarver-Carr ME et al. Screening for proteinuria in US adults: a cost-effectiveness analysis. JAMA 2003; 290: 3101–3114.
Bowie L, Smith S, Gochman N. Characteristics of binding between reagent-strip indicators and urinary proteins. Clin Chem 1977; 23: 128–130.
Gyure WL. Comparison of several methods for semiquantitative determination of urinary protein. Clin Chem 1977; 23: 876–879.
James GP, Bee DE, Fuller JB. Proteinuria: accuracy and precision of laboratory diagnosis by dip-stick analysis. Clin Chem 1978; 24: 1934–1939.
Rumley A. Urine dipstick testing: comparison of results obtained by visual reading and with the Bayer CLINITEK 50. Ann Clin Biochem 2000; 37 (Pt 2): 220–221.
Scotti da Silva-Colombeli A, Falkenberg M. Analytical interferences of drugs in the chemical examination of urinary protein. Clin Biochem 2007; 40: 1074–1076.
Ralston SH, Caine N, Richards I et al. Screening for proteinuria in a rheumatology clinic: comparison of dipstick testing, 24 h urine quantitative protein, and protein/creatinine ratio in random urine samples. Ann Rheum Dis 1988; 47: 759–763.
Waugh JJ, Clark TJ, Divakaran TG et al. Accuracy of urinalysis dipstick techniques in predicting significant proteinuria in pregnancy. Obstet Gynecol 2004; 103: 769–777.
White SL, Yu R, Craig JC et al. Diagnostic accuracy of urine dipsticks for detection of albuminuria in the general community. Am J Kidney Dis 2011; 58: 19–28.
Saudan PJ, Brown MA, Farrell T et al. Improved methods of assessing proteinuria in hypertensive pregnancy. Br J Obstet Gynaecol 1997; 104: 1159–1164.
Beetham R, Cattell WR. Proteinuria: pathophysiology, significance and recommendations for measurement in clinical practice. Ann Clin Biochem 1993; 30 (Pt 5): 425–434.
Keane WF, Eknoyan G. Proteinuria, albuminuria, risk, assessment, detection, elimination (PARADE): a position paper of the National Kidney Foundation. Am J Kidney Dis 1999; 33: 1004–1010.
Claudi T, Cooper JG. Comparison of urinary albumin excretion rate in overnight urine and albumin creatinine ratio in spot urine in diabetic patients in general practice. Scand J Prim Health Care 2001; 19: 247–248.
Gatling W, Knight C, Mullee MA et al. Microalbuminuria in diabetes: a population study of the prevalence and an assessment of three screening tests. Diabet Med 1988; 5: 343–347.
Hutchison AS, O’Reilly DS, MacCuish AC. Albumin excretion rate, albumin concentration, and albumin/creatinine ratio compared for screening diabetics for slight albuminuria. Clin Chem 1988; 34: 2019–2021.
Marshall SM. Screening for microalbuminuria: which measurement? Diabet Med 1991; 8: 706–711.
Marshall SM, Alberti KG. Screening for early diabetic nephropathy. Ann Clin Biochem 1986; 23 (Pt 2): 195–197.
Chitalia VC, Kothari J, Wells EJ et al. Cost-benefit analysis and prediction of 24-hour proteinuria from the spot urine protein-creatinine ratio. Clin Nephrol 2001; 55: 436–447.
Cote AM, Brown MA, Lam E et al. Diagnostic accuracy of urinary spot protein:creatinine ratio for proteinuria in hypertensive pregnant women: systematic review. BMJ 2008; 336: 1003–1006.
Dyson EH, Will EJ, Davison AM et al. Use of the urinary protein creatinine index to assess proteinuria in renal transplant patients. Nephrol Dial Transplant 1992; 7: 450–452.
Ginsberg JM, Chang BS, Matarese RA et al. Use of single voided urine samples to estimate quantitative proteinuria. N Engl J Med 1983; 309: 1543–1546.
Leanos-Miranda A, Marquez-Acosta J, Romero-Arauz F et al. Protein:creatinine ratio in random urine samples is a reliable marker of increased 24-hour protein excretion in hospitalized women with hypertensive disorders of pregnancy. Clin Chem 2007; 53: 1623–1628.
Lemann J, Jr., Doumas BT. Proteinuria in health and disease assessed by measuring the urinary protein/creatinine ratio. Clin Chem 1987; 33: 297–299.
Ruggenenti P, Gaspari F, Perna A et al. Cross sectional longitudinal study of spot morning urine protein:creatinine ratio, 24 h urine protein excretion rate, glomerular filtration rate, and end stage renal failure in chronic renal disease in patients without diabetes. BMJ 1998; 316: 504–509.
Pugliese G, Solini A, Fondelli C et al. Reproducibility of albuminuria in type 2 diabetic subjects. Findings from the Renal Insufficiency And Cardiovascular Events (RIACE) study. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2011; 26: 3950–3954.
Newman DJ, Pugia MJ, Lott JA et al. Urinary protein and albumin excretion corrected by creatinine and specific gravity. Clin Chim Acta 2000; 294: 139–155.
Howey JE, Browning MC, Fraser CG. Selecting the optimum specimen for assessing slight albuminuria, and a strategy for clinical investigation: novel uses of data on biological variation. Clin Chem 1987; 33: 2034–2038.
Carter JL, Tomson CR, Stevens PE et al. Does urinary tract infection cause proteinuria or microalbuminuria? A systematic review. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2006; 21: 3031–3037.
Heathcote KL, Wilson MP, Quest DW et al. Prevalence and duration of exercise induced albuminuria in healthy people. Clin Invest Med 2009; 32: E261–265.
Leung AK, Wong AH. Proteinuria in children. Am Fam Physician 2010; 82: 645–651.
Boger CA, Chen MH, Tin A et al. CUBN is a gene locus for albuminuria. J Am Soc Nephrol 2011; 22: 555–570.
Price CP, Newall RG, Boyd JC. Use of protein:creatinine ratio measurements on random urine samples for prediction of significant proteinuria: a systematic review. Clin Chem 2005; 51: 1577–1586.
National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. NICE clinical guideline 73. Chronic kidney disease: early identification and management of chronic kidney disease in adults in primary and secondary care. 2008.
Montanes Bermudez R, Gracia Garcia S, Perez Surribas D et al. Consensus document. Recommendations on assessing proteinuria during the diagnosis and follow-up of chronic kidney disease. Nefrologia 2011; 31: 331–345.
Johnson DW, Jones GR, Mathew TH et al. Chronic kidney disease and measurement of albuminuria or proteinuria: a position statement. Med J Aust 2012; 197: 224–225.
Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network. Guideline 103. Diagnosis and management of chronic kidney disease. 2008.
Caring for Australasians with Renal Impairment. http://www.cari.org.au/guidelines.php
Clarke W, Frost SJ, Kraus E et al. Renal function testing. In: Nichols JH (ed) Evidence-based Practice for Point-of-Care Testing. National Academy of Clinical Biochemistry, 2006, pp 126–134.
Panek R, Lawen T, Kiberd BA. Screening for proteinuria in kidney transplant recipients. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2011; 26: 1385–1387.
Incerti J, Zelmanovitz T, Camargo JL et al. Evaluation of tests for microalbuminuria screening in patients with diabetes. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2005; 20: 2402–2407.
Methven S, MacGregor MS, Traynor JP et al. Assessing proteinuria in chronic kidney disease: protein-creatinine ratio versus albumin-creatinine ratio. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2010; 25: 2991–2996.
Methven S, MacGregor MS, Traynor JP et al. Comparison of urinary albumin and urinary total protein as predictors of patient outcomes in CKD. Am J Kidney Dis 2011; 57: 21–28.
Methven S, Traynor JP, Hair MD et al. Stratifying risk in chronic kidney disease: an observational study of UK guidelines for measuring total proteinuria and albuminuria. QJM 2011; 104: 663–670.
Nauta FL, Bakker SJ, van Oeveren W et al. Albuminuria, proteinuria, and novel urine biomarkers as predictors of long-term allograft outcomes in kidney transplant recipients. Am J Kidney Dis 2011; 57: 733–743.
Ellam TJ. Albumin:creatinine ratio--a flawed measure? The merits of estimated albuminuria reporting. Nephron Clin Pract 2011; 118: c324–330.
Comper WD, Osicka TM, Clark M et al. Earlier detection of microalbuminuria in diabetic patients using a new urinary albumin assay. Kidney Int 2004; 65: 1850–1855.
Comper WD, Osicka TM, Jerums G. High prevalence of immuno-unreactive intact albumin in urine of diabetic patients. Am J Kidney Dis 2003; 41: 336–342.
Magliano DJ, Polkinghorne KR, Barr EL et al. HPLC-detected albuminuria predicts mortality. J Am Soc Nephrol 2007; 18: 3171–3176.
Osicka TM, Comper WD. Characterization of immunochemically nonreactive urinary albumin. Clin Chem 2004; 50: 2286–2291.
Sviridov D, Drake SK, Hortin GL. Reactivity of urinary albumin (microalbumin) assays with fragmented or modified albumin. Clin Chem 2008; 54: 61–68.
Sviridov D, Meilinger B, Drake SK et al. Coelution of other proteins with albumin during size-exclusion HPLC: Implications for analysis of urinary albumin. Clin Chem 2006; 52: 389–397.
Tsioufis C, Mazaraki A, Dimitriadis K et al. Microalbuminuria in the paediatric age: current knowledge and emerging questions. Acta Paediatr 2011; 100: 1180–1184.
Rademacher ER, Sinaiko AR. Albuminuria in children. Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens 2009; 18: 246–251.
Wrong OM, Norden AG, Feest TG. Dent's disease; a familial proximal renal tubular syndrome with low-molecular-weight proteinuria, hypercalciuria, nephrocalcinosis, metabolic bone disease, progressive renal failure and a marked male predominance. QJM 1994; 87: 473–493.
Atkins RC, Briganti EM, Zimmet PZ et al. Association between albuminuria and proteinuria in the general population: the AusDiab Study. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2003; 18: 2170–2174.
Gosling P. Proteinuria. In: Marshall WJ, Bangert SK (eds). Clinical Biochemistry: Metabolic and Clinical Aspects, 2nd Ed. Elsevier, 2008, pp 156–173.
Goren MP, Li JT. The Coomassie Brilliant Blue method underestimates drug-induced tubular proteinuria. Clin Chem 1986; 32: 386–388.
Weber MH, Verwiebe R. Alpha 1-microglobulin (protein HC): features of a promising indicator of proximal tubular dysfunction. Eur J Clin Chem Clin Biochem 1992; 30: 683–691.
Herget-Rosenthal S, Poppen D, Husing J et al. Prognostic value of tubular proteinuria and enzymuria in nonoliguric acute tubular necrosis. Clin Chem 2004; 50: 552–558.
Ginevri F, Piccotti E, Alinovi R et al. Reversible tubular proteinuria precedes microalbuminuria and correlates with the metabolic status in diabetic children. Pediatr Nephrol 1993; 7: 23–26.
Tomlinson PA, Smellie JM, Prescod N et al. Differential excretion of urinary proteins in children with vesicoureteric reflux and reflux nephropathy. Pediatr Nephrol 1994; 8: 21–25.
Bird JM, Owen RG, D’Sa S et al. Guidelines for the diagnosis and management of multiple myeloma 2011. Br J Haematol 2011; 154: 32–75.
Slack TK, Wilson DM. Normal renal function: CIN and CPAH in healthy donors before and after nephrectomy. Mayo Clinic Proc 1976; 51: 296–300.
Rowe JW, Andres R, Tobin JD et al. The effect of age on creatinine clearance in men: a cross-sectional and longitudinal study. J Gerontol 1976; 31: 155–163.
Lindeman RD, Tobin JD, Shock NW. Association between blood pressure and the rate of decline in renal function with age. Kidney Int 1984; 26: 861–868.
Halbesma N, Kuiken DS, Brantsma AH et al. Macroalbuminuria is a better risk marker than low estimated GFR to identify individuals at risk for accelerated GFR loss in population screening. J Am Soc Nephrol 2006; 17: 2582–2590.
Imai E, Horio M, Yamagata K et al. Slower decline of glomerular filtration rate in the Japanese general population: a longitudinal 10-year follow-up study. Hypertens Res 2008; 31: 433–441.
Matsushita K, Selvin E, Bash LD et al. Change in estimated GFR associates with coronary heart disease and mortality. J Am Soc Nephrol 2009; 20: 2617–2624.
Kronborg J, Solbu M, Njolstad I et al. Predictors of change in estimated GFR: a population-based 7-year follow-up from the Tromso study. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2008; 23: 2818–2826.
Hemmelgarn BR, Zhang J, Manns BJ et al. Progression of kidney dysfunction in the community-dwelling elderly. Kidney Int 2006; 69: 2155–2161.
Keller C, Katz R, Sarnak MJ et al. Inflammatory biomarkers and decline in kidney function in the elderly: the Cardiovascular Health Study. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2010; 25: 119–124.
John R, Webb M, Young A et al. Unreferred chronic kidney disease: a longitudinal study. Am J Kidney Dis 2004; 43: 825–835.
Levey AS, Gassman JJ, Hall PM et al. Assessing the progression of renal disease in clinical studies: effects of duration of follow-up and regression to the mean. Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) Study Group. J Am Soc Nephrol 1991; 1: 1087–1094.
Klahr S, Levey AS, Beck GJ et al. The effects of dietary protein restriction and blood-pressure control on the progression of chronic renal disease. Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study Group. N Engl J Med 1994; 330: 877–884.
Wright JT, Jr., Bakris G, Greene T et al. Effect of blood pressure lowering and antihypertensive drug class on progression of hypertensive kidney disease: results from the AASK trial. JAMA 2002; 288: 2421–2431.
Eriksen BO, Ingebretsen OC. The progression of chronic kidney disease: a 10-year population-based study of the effects of gender and age. Kidney Int 2006; 69: 375–382.
Jones C, Roderick P, Harris S et al. Decline in kidney function before and after nephrology referral and the effect on survival in moderate to advanced chronic kidney disease. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2006; 21: 2133–2143.
Levin A, Djurdjev O, Beaulieu M et al. Variability and risk factors for kidney disease progression and death following attainment of stage 4 CKD in a referred cohort. Am J Kidney Dis 2008; 52: 661–671.
Al-Aly Z, Zeringue A, Fu J et al. Rate of kidney function decline associates with mortality. J Am Soc Nephrol 2010; 21: 1961–1969.
Shlipak MG, Katz R, Kestenbaum B et al. Rapid decline of kidney function increases cardiovascular risk in the elderly. J Am Soc Nephrol 2009; 20: 2625–2630.
Cheng TY, Wen SF, Astor BC et al. Mortality risks for all causes and cardiovascular diseases and reduced GFR in a middle-aged working population in Taiwan. Am J Kidney Dis 2008; 52: 1051–1060.
Rifkin DE, Shlipak MG, Katz R et al. Rapid kidney function decline and mortality risk in older adults. Arch Intern Med 2008; 168: 2212–2218.
Appel LJ, Wright JT, Jr., Greene T et al. Intensive blood-pressure control in hypertensive chronic kidney disease. N Engl J Med 2010; 363: 918–929.
Hunsicker LG, Adler S, Caggiula A et al. Predictors of the progression of renal disease in the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease Study. Kidney Int 1997; 51: 1908–1919.
Menon V, Wang X, Sarnak MJ et al. Long-term outcomes in nondiabetic chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int 2008; 73: 1310–1315.
Adler AI, Stevens RJ, Manley SE et al. Development and progression of nephropathy in type 2 diabetes: the United Kingdom Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS 64). Kidney Int 2003; 63: 225–232.
Caramori ML, Fioretto P, Mauer M. Enhancing the predictive value of urinary albumin for diabetic nephropathy. J Am Soc Nephrol 2006; 17: 339–352.
Hoefield RA, Kalra PA, Baker PG et al. The use of eGFR and ACR to predict decline in renal function in people with diabetes. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2011; 26: 887–892.
Rosolowsky ET, Skupien J, Smiles AM et al. Risk for ESRD in type 1 diabetes remains high despite renoprotection. J Am Soc Nephrol 2011; 22: 545–553.
Hemmelgarn BR, Clement F, Manns BJ et al. Overview of the Alberta Kidney Disease Network. BMC Nephrol 2009; 10: 30.
Turin TC, Coresh J, Tonelli M et al. One-year change in kidney function is associated with an increased mortality risk. Am J Nephrol 2012; 36: 41–49.
Turin TC, Coresh J, Tonelli M et al. Short-term change in kidney function and risk of end-stage renal disease. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2012; 27: 3835–3843.
Schmieder RE, Mann JF, Schumacher H et al. Changes in albuminuria predict mortality and morbidity in patients with vascular disease. J Am Soc Nephrol 2011; 22: 1353–1364.
Li L, Astor BC, Lewis J et al. Longitudinal Progression Trajectory of GFR Among Patients With CKD. Am J Kidney Dis 2012; 59: 504–512.
O’Hare AM, Batten A, Burrows NR et al. Trajectories of Kidney Function Decline in the 2 Years Before Initiation of Long-term Dialysis. Am J Kidney Dis 2012; 59: 513–522.
Leblanc M, Kellum JA, Gibney RT et al. Risk factors for acute renal failure: inherent and modifiable risks. Curr Opin Crit Care 2005; 11: 533–536.
Naughton CA. Drug-induced nephrotoxicity. Am Fam Physician 2008; 78: 743–750.
Pannu N, Nadim MK. An overview of drug-induced acute kidney injury. Crit Care Med 2008; 36: S216–223.
Solomon R, Dauerman HL. Contrast-induced acute kidney injury. Circulation 2010; 122: 2451–2455.
Black C, Sharma P, Scotland G et al. Early referral strategies for management of people with markers of renal disease: a systematic review of the evidence of clinical effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and economic analysis. Health Technol Assess 2010; 14: 1–184.
Bang H, Mazumdar M, Newman G et al. Screening for kidney disease in vascular patients: SCreening for Occult REnal Disease (SCORED) experience. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2009; 24: 2452–2457.
Johnson ES, Smith DH, Thorp ML et al. Predicting the risk of end-stage renal disease in the population-based setting: a retrospective case-control study. BMC Nephrol 2011; 12: 17.
Wakai K, Kawamura T, Endoh M et al. A scoring system to predict renal outcome in IgA nephropathy: from a nationwide prospective study. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2006; 21: 2800–2808.
Keane WF, Zhang Z, Lyle PA et al. Risk scores for predicting outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes and nephropathy: the RENAAL study. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2006; 1: 761–767.
Fine EJ, Blaufox MD. Prediction rule for renal artery stenosis. Ann Intern Med 1999; 131: 227–228.
Kshirsagar AV, Bang H, Bomback AS et al. A simple algorithm to predict incident kidney disease. Arch Intern Med 2008; 168: 2466–2473.
Tangri N, Stevens LA, Griffith J et al. A predictive model for progression of chronic kidney disease to kidney failure. JAMA 2011; 305: 1553–1559.
Halbesma N, Jansen DF, Heymans MW et al. Development and validation of a general population renal risk score. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2011; 6: 1731–1738.
National Kidney Foundation. KDOQI Clinical Practice Guideline for Diabetes and CKD: 2012 Update. Am J Kidney Dis 2012; 60: 850–886.
Mittalhenkle A, Stehman-Breen CO, Shlipak MG et al. Cardiovascular risk factors and incident acute renal failure in older adults: the cardiovascular health study. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2008; 3: 450–456.
Uchino S, Kellum JA, Bellomo R et al. Acute renal failure in critically ill patients: a multinational, multicenter study. JAMA 2005; 294: 813–818.
Hoste EA, Lameire NH, Vanholder RC et al. Acute renal failure in patients with sepsis in a surgical ICU: predictive factors, incidence, comorbidity, and outcome. J Am Soc Nephrol 2003; 14: 1022–1030.
McCullough PA, Wolyn R, Rocher LL et al. Acute renal failure after coronary intervention: incidence, risk factors, and relationship to mortality. Am J Med 1997; 103: 368–375.
Mehran R, Aymong ED, Nikolsky E et al. A simple risk score for prediction of contrast-induced nephropathy after percutaneous coronary intervention: development and initial validation. J Am Coll Cardiol 2004; 44: 1393–1399.
Mehta RH, Grab JD, O’Brien SM et al. Bedside tool for predicting the risk of postoperative dialysis in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Circulation 2006; 114: 2208–2216.
Thakar CV, Worley S, Arrigain S et al. Influence of renal dysfunction on mortality after cardiac surgery: modifying effect of preoperative renal function. Kidney Int 2005; 67: 1112–1119.
Waikar SS, Liu KD, Chertow GM. Diagnosis, epidemiology and outcomes of acute kidney injury. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2008; 3: 844–861.
Yegenaga I, Hoste E, Van Biesen W et al. Clinical characteristics of patients developing ARF due to sepsis/systemic inflammatory response syndrome: results of a prospective study. Am J Kidney Dis 2004; 43: 817–824.
Parfrey PS, Griffiths SM, Barrett BJ et al. Contrast material-induced renal failure in patients with diabetes mellitus, renal insufficiency, or both. A prospective controlled study. N Engl J Med 1989; 320: 143–149.
Browner WS, Li J, Mangano DT. In-hospital and long-term mortality in male veterans following noncardiac surgery. The Study of Perioperative Ischemia Research Group. JAMA 1992; 268: 228–232.
Hou SH, Bushinsky DA, Wish JB et al. Hospital-acquired renal insufficiency: a prospective study. Am J Med 1983; 74: 243–248.
Singh P, Rifkin DE, Blantz RC. Chronic kidney disease: an inherent risk factor for acute kidney injury? Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2010; 5: 1690–1695.
Lafrance JP, Djurdjev O, Levin A. Incidence and outcomes of acute kidney injury in a referred chronic kidney disease cohort. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2010; 25: 2203–2209.
Chapin E, Zhan M, Hsu VD et al. Adverse safety events in chronic kidney disease: the frequency of “multiple hits”. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2010; 5: 95–101.
Chertow GM, Christiansen CL, Cleary PD et al. Prognostic stratification in critically ill patients with acute renal failure requiring dialysis. Arch Intern Med 1995; 155: 1505–1511.
Chertow GM, Soroko SH, Paganini EP et al. Mortality after acute renal failure: models for prognostic stratification and risk adjustment. Kidney Int 2006; 70: 1120–1126.
Mehta RL, Pascual MT, Gruta CG et al. Refining predictive models in critically ill patients with acute renal failure. J Am Soc Nephrol 2002; 13: 1350–1357.
Paganini EP, Larive B, Kanagasundaram NS. Severity scores and outcomes with acute renal failure in the ICU setting. Contrib Nephrol 2001: 181–195.
Uchino S, Bellomo R, Morimatsu H et al. External validation of severity scoring systems for acute renal failure using a multinational database. Crit Care Med 2005; 33: 1961–1967.
Waikar SS, Curhan GC, Wald R et al. Declining mortality in patients with acute renal failure, 1988 to 2002. J Am Soc Nephrol 2006; 17: 1143–1150.
Khosla N, Soroko SB, Chertow GM et al. Preexisting chronic kidney disease: a potential for improved outcomes from acute kidney injury. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2009; 4: 1914–1919.
Fouque D, Laville M. Low protein diets for chronic kidney disease in non diabetic adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2009: CD001892.
Fouque D, Laville M, Boissel JP et al. Controlled low protein diets in chronic renal insufficiency: meta-analysis. BMJ 1992; 304: 216–220.
Kasiske BL, Lakatua JD, Ma JZ et al. A meta-analysis of the effects of dietary protein restriction on the rate of decline in renal function. Am J Kidney Dis 1998; 31: 954–961.
Pedrini MT, Levey AS, Lau J et al. The effect of dietary protein restriction on the progression of diabetic and nondiabetic renal diseases: a meta-analysis. Ann Intern Med 1996; 124: 627–632.
Robertson L, Waugh N, Robertson A. Protein restriction for diabetic renal disease. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2009: CD002181.
Menon V, Kopple JD, Wang X et al. Effect of a very low-protein diet on outcomes: long-term follow-up of the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease (MDRD) Study. Am J Kidney Dis 2009; 53: 208–217.
Knight EL, Stampfer MJ, Hankinson SE et al. The impact of protein intake on renal function decline in women with normal renal function or mild renal insufficiency. Ann Intern Med 2003; 138: 460–467.
Chaturvedi S, Jones C. Protein restriction for children with chronic renal failure. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2007: CD006863.
National Kidney Foundation. KDOQI clinical practice guideline for diabetes and chronic kidney disease: 2012 Update. Am J Kidney Dis 2012; 60: 850–886.
Patel A, MacMahon S, Chalmers J et al. Intensive blood glucose control and vascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med 2008; 358: 2560–2572.
Ismail-Beigi F, Craven T, Banerji MA et al. Effect of intensive treatment of hyperglycaemia on microvascular outcomes in type 2 diabetes: an analysis of the ACCORD randomised trial. Lancet 2010; 376: 419–430.
Duckworth W, Abraira C, Moritz T et al. Glucose control and vascular complications in veterans with type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med 2009; 360: 129–139.
Nathan DM, Zinman B, Cleary PA et al. Modern-day clinical course of type 1 diabetes mellitus after 30 years’ duration: the diabetes control and complications trial/epidemiology of diabetes interventions and complications and Pittsburgh epidemiology of diabetes complications experience (1983–2005). Arch Intern Med 2009; 169: 1307–1316.
UK Prospective Diabetes Study (UKPDS) Group. Intensive blood-glucose control with sulphonylureas or insulin compared with conventional treatment and risk of complications in patients with type 2 diabetes (UKPDS 33). Lancet 1998; 352: 837–853.
Ichikawa H, Nagake Y, Takahashi M et al. What is the best index of glycemic control in patients with diabetes mellitus on hemodialysis? Nihon Jinzo Gakkai Shi 1996; 38: 305–308.
Joy MS, Cefalu WT, Hogan SL et al. Long-term glycemic control measurements in diabetic patients receiving hemodialysis. Am J Kidney Dis 2002; 39: 297–307.
Nakao T, Matsumoto H, Okada T et al. Influence of erythropoietin treatment on hemoglobin A1c levels in patients with chronic renal failure on hemodialysis. Intern Med 1998; 37: 826–830.
Ng JM, Cooke M, Bhandari S et al. The effect of iron and erythropoietin treatment on the A1C of patients with diabetes and chronic kidney disease. Diabetes Care 2010; 33: 2310–2313.
Shima K, Chujo K, Yamada M et al. Lower value of glycated haemoglobin relative to glycaemic control in diabetic patients with end-stage renal disease not on haemodialysis. Ann Clin Biochem 2012; 49: 68–74.
Vos FE, Schollum JB, Coulter CV et al. Assessment of markers of glycaemic control in diabetic patients with chronic kidney disease using continuous glucose monitoring. Nephrology (Carlton) 2012; 17: 182–188.
American Diabetes Association. Executive summary: Standards of medical care in diabetes--2012. Diabetes Care 2012; 35 (Suppl 1): S4–S10.
Jones-Burton C, Mishra SI, Fink JC et al. An in-depth review of the evidence linking dietary salt intake and progression of chronic kidney disease. Am J Nephrol 2006; 26: 268–275.
Swift PA, Markandu ND, Sagnella GA et al. Modest salt reduction reduces blood pressure and urine protein excretion in black hypertensives: a randomized control trial. Hypertension 2005; 46: 308–312.
Hoffmann IS, Cubeddu LX. Increased blood pressure reactivity to dietary salt in patients with the metabolic syndrome. J Hum Hypertens 2007; 21: 438–444.
Bellizzi V, Di Iorio BR, De Nicola L et al. Very low protein diet supplemented with ketoanalogs improves blood pressure control in chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int 2007; 71: 245–251.
Slagman MC, Waanders F, Hemmelder MH et al. Moderate dietary sodium restriction added to angiotensin converting enzyme inhibition compared with dual blockade in lowering proteinuria and blood pressure: randomised controlled trial. BMJ 2011; 343: d4366.
Bellomo G, Venanzi S, Verdura C et al. Association of uric acid with change in kidney function in healthy normotensive individuals. Am J Kidney Dis 2010; 56: 264–272.
Iseki K, Ikemiya Y, Inoue T et al. Significance of hyperuricemia as a risk factor for developing ESRD in a screened cohort. Am J Kidney Dis 2004; 44: 642–650.
Mok Y, Lee SJ, Kim MS et al. Serum uric acid and chronic kidney disease: the Severance cohort study. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2012; 27: 1831–1835.
Wen CP, David Cheng TY, Chan HT et al. Is high serum uric acid a risk marker or a target for treatment? Examination of its independent effect in a large cohort with low cardiovascular risk. Am J Kidney Dis 2010; 56: 273–288.
Yamada T, Fukatsu M, Suzuki S et al. Elevated serum uric acid predicts chronic kidney disease. Am J Med Sci 2011; 342: 461–466.
Goicoechea M, de Vinuesa SG, Verdalles U et al. Effect of allopurinol in chronic kidney disease progression and cardiovascular risk. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2010; 5: 1388–1393.
Siu YP, Leung KT, Tong MK et al. Use of allopurinol in slowing the progression of renal disease through its ability to lower serum uric acid level. Am J Kidney Dis 2006; 47: 51–59.
Kanbay M, Huddam B, Azak A et al. A randomized study of allopurinol on endothelial function and estimated glomular filtration rate in asymptomatic hyperuricemic subjects with normal renal function. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2011; 6: 1887–1894.
Kanbay M, Ozkara A, Selcoki Y et al. Effect of treatment of hyperuricemia with allopurinol on blood pressure, creatinine clearence, and proteinuria in patients with normal renal functions. Int Urol Nephrol 2007; 39: 1227–1233.
Kao MP, Ang DS, Gandy SJ et al. Allopurinol benefits left ventricular mass and endothelial dysfunction in chronic kidney disease. J Am Soc Nephrol 2011; 22: 1382–1389.
Saito J, Matsuzawa Y, Ito H et al. The alkalizer citrate reduces serum uric Acid levels and improves renal function in hyperuricemic patients treated with the xanthine oxidase inhibitor allopurinol. Endocr Res 2010; 35: 145–154.
Malaguarnera M, Vacante M, Russo C et al. A single dose of rasburicase in elderly patients with hyperuricaemia reduces serum uric acid levels and improves renal function. Expert Opin Pharmacother 2009; 10: 737–742.
Miao Y, Ottenbros SA, Laverman GD et al. Effect of a reduction in uric acid on renal outcomes during losartan treatment: a post hoc analysis of the reduction of endpoints in non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus with the Angiotensin II Antagonist Losartan Trial. Hypertension 2011; 58: 2–7.
Johansen KL. Exercise and chronic kidney disease: current recommendations. Sports Med 2005; 35: 485–499.
Johansen KL, Chertow GM, Ng AV et al. Physical activity levels in patients on hemodialysis and healthy sedentary controls. Kidney Int 2000; 57: 2564–2570.
Padilla J, Krasnoff J, Da Silva M et al. Physical functioning in patients with chronic kidney disease. J Nephrol 2008; 21: 550–559.
Beddhu S, Baird BC, Zitterkoph J et al. Physical activity and mortality in chronic kidney disease (NHANES III). Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2009; 4: 1901–1906.
Churchill DN, Torrance GW, Taylor DW et al. Measurement of quality of life in end-stage renal disease: the time trade-off approach. Clin Invest Med 1987; 10: 14–20.
DeOreo PB. Hemodialysis patient-assessed functional health status predicts continued survival, hospitalization, and dialysis-attendance compliance. Am J Kidney Dis 1997; 30: 204–212.
Booth FW, Gordon SE, Carlson CJ et al. Waging war on modern chronic diseases: primary prevention through exercise biology. J Appl Physiol 2000; 88: 774–787.
Dickinson HO, Mason JM, Nicolson DJ et al. Lifestyle interventions to reduce raised blood pressure: a systematic review of randomized controlled trials. J Hypertens 2006; 24: 215–233.
Stewart KJ. Exercise training and the cardiovascular consequences of type 2 diabetes and hypertension: plausible mechanisms for improving cardiovascular health. JAMA 2002; 288: 1622–1631.
Daul AE, Schafers RF, Daul K et al. Exercise during hemodialysis. Clin Nephrol 2004; 61 (Suppl 1): S26–30.
Deligiannis A. Cardiac adaptations following exercise training in hemodialysis patients. Clin Nephrol 2004; 61 (Suppl 1): S39–45.
Liu SH, C. LC, Yeh SH et al. Effect of exercise training on hemodialysis. Journal of the Formosan Medical Association 2002; 6: 129–142.
Mustata S, Chan C, Lai V et al. Impact of an exercise program on arterial stiffness and insulin resistance in hemodialysis patients. J Am Soc Nephrol 2004; 15: 2713–2718.
Ouzouni S, Kouidi E, Sioulis A et al. Effects of intradialytic exercise training on health-related quality of life indices in haemodialysis patients. Clin Rehabil 2009; 23: 53–63.
Storer TW, Casaburi R, Sawelson S et al. Endurance exercise training during haemodialysis improves strength, power, fatigability and physical performance in maintenance haemodialysis patients. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2005; 20: 1429–1437.
Vaitkevicius PV, Fleg JL, Engel JH et al. Effects of age and aerobic capacity on arterial stiffness in healthy adults. Circulation 1993; 88: 1456–1462.
Mustata S, Groeneveld S, Davidson W et al. Effects of exercise training on physical impairment, arterial stiffness and health-related quality of life in patients with chronic kidney disease: a pilot study. Int Urol Nephrol 2011; 43: 1133–1141.
Szromba C, Thies MA, Ossman SS. Advancing chronic kidney disease care: new imperatives for recognition and intervention. Nephrol Nurs J 2002; 29: 547–559.
Chen PY, Huang YC, Kao YH et al. Effects of an exercise program on blood biochemical values and exercise stage of chronic kidney disease patients. J Nurs Res 2010; 18: 98–107.
Tobita I, Suzuki S, Kobayashi T et al. A programme to encourage participation of haemodialysis patients in an exercise regimen. J Ren Care 2009; 35: 48–53.
van Vilsteren MC, de Greef MH, Huisman RM. The effects of a low-to-moderate intensity pre-conditioning exercise programme linked with exercise counselling for sedentary haemodialysis patients in The Netherlands: results of a randomized clinical trial. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2005; 20: 141–146.
Kosmadakis GC, John SG, Clapp EL et al. Benefits of regular walking exercise in advanced pre-dialysis chronic kidney disease. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2012; 27: 997–1004.
Hall JE, Crook ED, Jones DW et al. Mechanisms of obesity-associated cardiovascular and renal disease. Am J Med Sci 2002; 324: 127–137.
Wahba IM, Mak RH. Obesity and obesity-initiated metabolic syndrome: mechanistic links to chronic kidney disease. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2007; 2: 550–562.
Wang Y, Chen X, Song Y et al. Association between obesity and kidney disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Kidney Int 2008; 73: 19–33.
Hobbs H, Farmer C, Irving J et al. Is high body mass index independently associated with diminished glomerular filtration rate? An epidemiological study. J Ren Care 2011; 37: 148–154.
Mohsen A, Brown R, Hoefield R et al. Body mass index has no effect on rate of progression of chronic kidney disease in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus. J Nephrol 2012: 25: 384–393.
Burton JO, Gray LJ, Webb DR et al. Association of anthropometric obesity measures with chronic kidney disease risk in a non-diabetic patient population. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2012; 27: 1860–1866.
Kasiske BL, Napier J. Glomerular sclerosis in patients with massive obesity. Am J Nephrol 1985; 5: 45–50.
Hsu CY, McCulloch CE, Iribarren C et al. Body mass index and risk for end-stage renal disease. Ann Intern Med 2006; 144: 21–28.
Navaneethan SD, Yehnert H, Moustarah F et al. Weight loss interventions in chronic kidney disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2009; 4: 1565–1574.
Afshinnia F, Wilt TJ, Duval S et al. Weight loss and proteinuria: systematic review of clinical trials and comparative cohorts. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2010; 25: 1173–1183.
Orth SR, Hallan SI. Smoking: a risk factor for progression of chronic kidney disease and for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in renal patients--absence of evidence or evidence of absence? Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2008; 3: 226–236.
Jungers P, Massy ZA, Nguyen Khoa T et al. Incidence and risk factors of atherosclerotic cardiovascular accidents in predialysis chronic renal failure patients: a prospective study. Nephrol Dial Transplant 1997; 12: 2597–2602.
Muntner P, He J, Astor BC et al. Traditional and nontraditional risk factors predict coronary heart disease in chronic kidney disease: results from the atherosclerosis risk in communities study. J Am Soc Nephrol 2005; 16: 529–538.
Myllymaki J, Syrjanen J, Helin H et al. Vascular diseases and their risk factors in IgA nephropathy. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2006; 21: 1876–1882.
Shlipak MG, Fried LF, Cushman M et al. Cardiovascular mortality risk in chronic kidney disease: comparison of traditional and novel risk factors. JAMA 2005; 293: 1737–1745.
Chase HP, Garg SK, Marshall G et al. Cigarette smoking increases the risk of albuminuria among subjects with type I diabetes. JAMA 1991; 265: 614–617.
Gambaro G, Bax G, Fusaro M et al. Cigarette smoking is a risk factor for nephropathy and its progression in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Nutr Metab 2001; 14: 337–342.
Hallan SI, Orth SR. Smoking is a risk factor in the progression to kidney failure. Kidney Int 2011; 80: 516–523.
Sawicki PT, Didjurgeit U, Muhlhauser I et al. Smoking is associated with progression of diabetic nephropathy. Diabetes Care 1994; 17: 126–131.
Sung RS, Althoen M, Howell TA et al. Excess risk of renal allograft loss associated with cigarette smoking. Transplantation 2001; 71: 1752–1757.
Inker LA, Coresh J, Levey AS et al. Estimated GFR, albuminuria, and complications of chronic kidney disease. J Am Soc Nephrol 2011; 22: 2322–2331.
Levin A, Bakris GL, Molitch M et al. Prevalence of abnormal serum vitamin D, PTH, calcium, and phosphorus in patients with chronic kidney disease: results of the study to evaluate early kidney disease. Kidney Int 2007; 71: 31–38.
World Health Organization. Worldwide prevalence of anaemia 1993–2005: WHO global database on anaemia. de Benoist B, McLean E, Egli I, and Cogswell M (eds), 2008.
Beall CM, Goldstein MC. Hemoglobin concentration of pastoral nomads permanently resident at 4,850–5,450 meters in Tibet. Am J Phys Anthropol 1987; 73: 433–438.
Cresanta JL, Croft JB, Webber LS et al. Racial difference in hemoglobin concentration of young adults. Prev Med 1987; 16: 659–669.
Meyers LD, Habicht JP, Johnson CL. Components of the difference in hemoglobin concentrations in blood between black and white women in the United States. Am J Epidemiol 1979; 109: 539–549.
Pan WH, Habicht JP. The non-iron-deficiency-related difference in hemoglobin concentration distribution between blacks and whites and between men and women. Am J Epidemiol 1991; 134: 1410–1416.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CDC criteria for anemia in children and childbearing-aged women. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 1989; 38: 400–404.
Levin A, Djurdjev O, Thompson C et al. Canadian randomized trial of hemoglobin maintenance to prevent or delay left ventricular mass growth in patients with CKD. Am J Kidney Dis 2005; 46: 799–811.
Pfeffer MA, Burdmann EA, Chen CY et al. A trial of darbepoetin alfa in type 2 diabetes and chronic kidney disease. N Engl J Med 2009; 361: 2019–2032.
Roger SD, McMahon LP, Clarkson A et al. Effects of early and late intervention with epoetin alpha on left ventricular mass among patients with chronic kidney disease (stage 3 or 4): results of a randomized clinical trial. J Am Soc Nephrol 2004; 15: 148–156.
Moranne O, Froissart M, Rossert J et al. Timing of onset of CKD-related metabolic complications. J Am Soc Nephrol 2009; 20: 164–171.
Vassalotti JA, Uribarri J, Chen SC et al. Trends in mineral metabolism: Kidney Early Evaluation Program (KEEP) and the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999–2004. Am J Kidney Dis 2008; 51: S56–68.
Stevens LA, Djurdjev O, Cardew S et al. Calcium, phosphate, and parathyroid hormone levels in combination and as a function of dialysis duration predict mortality: evidence for the complexity of the association between mineral metabolism and outcomes. J Am Soc Nephrol 2004; 15: 770–779.
Gutierrez OM, Isakova T, Andress DL et al. Prevalence and severity of disordered mineral metabolism in Blacks with chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int 2008; 73: 956–962.
Gutierrez OM, Farwell WR, Kermah D et al. Racial differences in the relationship between vitamin D, bone mineral density, and parathyroid hormone in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Osteoporos Int 2011; 22: 1745–1753.
National Kidney Foundation. KDOQI clinical practice guideline for nutrition in children with CKD: 2008 update. Am J Kidney Dis 2009; 53: S1–124.
Nickolas TL, Leonard MB, Shane E. Chronic kidney disease and bone fracture: a growing concern. Kidney Int 2008; 74: 721–731.
Bacchetta J, Boutroy S, Vilayphiou N et al. Early impairment of trabecular microarchitecture assessed with HR-pQCT in patients with stage II-IV chronic kidney disease. J Bone Miner Res 2010; 25: 849–857.
Nickolas TL, Stein E, Cohen A et al. Bone mass and microarchitecture in CKD patients with fracture. J Am Soc Nephrol 2010; 21: 1371–1380.
Nickolas TL, Cremers S, Zhang A et al. Discriminants of prevalent fractures in chronic kidney disease. J Am Soc Nephrol 2011; 22: 1560–1572.
Palmer SC, Hayen A, Macaskill P et al. Serum levels of phosphorus, parathyroid hormone, and calcium and risks of death and cardiovascular disease in individuals with chronic kidney disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA 2011; 305: 1119–1127.
Adeney KL, Siscovick DS, Ix JH et al. Association of serum phosphate with vascular and valvular calcification in moderate CKD. J Am Soc Nephrol 2009; 20: 381–387.
Moe SM, Zidehsarai MP, Chambers MA et al. Vegetarian compared with meat dietary protein source and phosphorus homeostasis in chronic kidney disease. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2011; 6: 257–264.
Sigrist MK, Chiarelli G, Lim L et al. Early initiation of phosphate lowering dietary therapy in non-dialysis chronic kidney disease: a critical review. J Ren Care 2009; 35 (Suppl 1): 71–78.
Lynch KE, Lynch R, Curhan GC et al. Prescribed dietary phosphate restriction and survival among hemodialysis patients. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2011; 6: 620–629.
Navaneethan SD, Palmer SC, Vecchio M et al. Phosphate binders for preventing and treating bone disease in chronic kidney disease patients. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2011: CD006023.
Mehrotra R, Kermah D, Budoff M et al. Hypovitaminosis D in chronic kidney disease. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2008; 3: 1144–1151.
Navaneethan SD, Schold JD, Arrigain S et al. Low 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and mortality in non-dialysis-dependent CKD. Am J Kidney Dis 2011; 58: 536–543.
Kandula P, Dobre M, Schold JD et al. Vitamin D supplementation in chronic kidney disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies and randomized controlled trials. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2011; 6: 50–62.
Palmer SC, McGregor DO, Craig JC et al. Vitamin D compounds for people with chronic kidney disease not requiring dialysis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2009: CD008175.
Miller PD. The kidney and bisphosphonates. Bone 2011; 49: 77–81.
Torregrosa JV, Ramos AM. [Use of bisphosphonates in chronic kidney disease]. Nefrologia 2010; 30: 288–296.
Bhan I, Dubey A, Wolf M. Diagnosis and management of mineral metabolism in CKD. J Gen Intern Med 2010; 25: 710–716.
Courtney AE, Leonard N, McCloskey MC et al. Bisphosphonate prescribing in chronic kidney disease. J R Coll Physicians Edinb 2009; 39: 4–9.
Ayus JC, Krothapalli RK. Effect of bicarbonate administration on cardiac function. Am J Med 1989; 87: 5–6.
Bailey JL, Wang X, England BK et al. The acidosis of chronic renal failure activates muscle proteolysis in rats by augmenting transcription of genes encoding proteins of the ATP-dependent ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. J Clin Invest 1996; 97: 1447–1453.
Domrongkitchaiporn S, Pongskul C, Sirikulchayanonta V et al. Bone histology and bone mineral density after correction of acidosis in distal renal tubular acidosis. Kidney Int 2002; 62: 2160–2166.
Kovesdy CP, Anderson JE, Kalantar-Zadeh K. Association of serum bicarbonate levels with mortality in patients with non-dialysis-dependent CKD. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2009; 24: 1232–1237.
Mak RH. Effect of metabolic acidosis on insulin action and secretion in uremia. Kidney Int 1998; 54: 603–607.
Menon V, Tighiouart H, Vaughn NS et al. Serum bicarbonate and long-term outcomes in CKD. Am J Kidney Dis 2010; 56: 907–914.
Mitch WE, Price SR. Mechanisms activated by kidney disease and the loss of muscle mass. Am J Kidney Dis 2001; 38: 1337–1342.
Navaneethan SD, Schold JD, Arrigain S et al. Serum bicarbonate and mortality in stage 3 and stage 4 chronic kidney disease. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2011; 6: 2395–2402.
Raphael KL, Wei G, Baird BC et al. Higher serum bicarbonate levels within the normal range are associated with better survival and renal outcomes in African Americans. Kidney Int 2011; 79: 356–362.
Shah SN, Abramowitz M, Hostetter TH et al. Serum bicarbonate levels and the progression of kidney disease: a cohort study. Am J Kidney Dis 2009; 54: 270–277.
Bright R. Reports of Medical Cases, Selected with a View of Illustrating the Symptoms and Cure of Diseases by a Reference to Morbid Anatomy, Volume 1. London: Brown & Green. 1827.
Osman AA. The value of alkalis in the treatment of chronic nephritis. Lancet 1930; 2: 945–959.
Lyon DM, Dunlop DM, Stewart CP. The alkaline treatment of chronic nephritis. Lancet 1931; 2: 1009–1013.
Rustom R, Grime JS, Costigan M et al. Oral sodium bicarbonate reduces proximal renal tubular peptide catabolism, ammoniogenesis, and tubular damage in renal patients. Ren Fail 1998; 20: 371–382.
Mathur RP, Dash SC, Gupta N et al. Effects of correction of metabolic acidosis on blood urea and bone metabolism in patients with mild to moderate chronic kidney disease: a prospective randomized single blind controlled trial. Ren Fail 2006; 28: 1–5.
de Brito-Ashurst I, Varagunam M, Raftery MJ et al. Bicarbonate supplementation slows progression of CKD and improves nutritional status. J Am Soc Nephrol 2009; 20: 2075–2084.
Phisitkul S, Khanna A, Simoni J et al. Amelioration of metabolic acidosis in patients with low GFR reduced kidney endothelin production and kidney injury, and better preserved GFR. Kidney Int 2010; 77: 617–623.
Husted FC, Nolph KD, Maher JF. NaHCO3 and NaCl tolerance in chronic renal failure. J Clin Invest 1975; 56: 414–419.
Husted FC, Nolph KD. NaHCO3 and NaCl tolerance in chronic renal failure II. Clin Nephrol 1977; 7: 21–25.
Hallan SI, Dahl K, Oien CM et al. Screening strategies for chronic kidney disease in the general population: follow-up of cross sectional health survey. BMJ 2006; 333: 1047.
McCullough PA, Li S, Jurkovitz CT et al. Chronic kidney disease, prevalence of premature cardiovascular disease, and relationship to short-term mortality. Am Heart J 2008; 156: 277–283.
Anavekar NS, McMurray JJ, Velazquez EJ et al. Relation between renal dysfunction and cardiovascular outcomes after myocardial infarction. N Engl J Med 2004; 351: 1285–1295.
Shlipak MG, Heidenreich PA, Noguchi H et al. Association of renal insufficiency with treatment and outcomes after myocardial infarction in elderly patients. Ann Intern Med 2002; 137: 555–562.
Wright RS, Reeder GS, Herzog CA et al. Acute myocardial infarction and renal dysfunction: a high-risk combination. Ann Intern Med 2002; 137: 563–570.
Sarnak MJ. Cardiovascular complications in chronic kidney disease. Am J Kidney Dis 2003; 41: 11–17.
Hemmelgarn BR, Manns BJ, Lloyd A et al. Relation between kidney function, proteinuria, and adverse outcomes. JAMA 2010; 303: 423–429.
Klausen K, Borch-Johnsen K, Feldt-Rasmussen B et al. Very low levels of microalbuminuria are associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease and death independently of renal function, hypertension, and diabetes. Circulation 2004; 110: 32–35.
Gerstein HC, Mann JF, Yi Q et al. Albuminuria and risk of cardiovascular events, death, and heart failure in diabetic and nondiabetic individuals. JAMA 2001; 286: 421–426.
Hallan S, Astor B, Romundstad S et al. Association of kidney function and albuminuria with cardiovascular mortality in older vs younger individuals: The HUNT II Study. Arch Intern Med 2007; 167: 2490–2496.
Ibsen H, Wachtell K, Olsen MH et al. Albuminuria and cardiovascular risk in hypertensive patients with left ventricular hypertrophy: the LIFE Study. Kidney Int Suppl 2004; 92: S56–58.
Menon V, Shlipak MG, Wang X et al. Cystatin C as a risk factor for outcomes in chronic kidney disease. Ann Intern Med 2007; 147: 19–27.
Peralta CA, Katz R, Sarnak MJ et al. Cystatin C identifies chronic kidney disease patients at higher risk for complications. J Am Soc Nephrol 2011; 22: 147–155.
Phrommintikul A, Haas SJ, Elsik M et al. Mortality and target haemoglobin concentrations in anaemic patients with chronic kidney disease treated with erythropoietin: a meta-analysis. Lancet 2007; 369: 381–388.
Strippoli GF, Tognoni G, Navaneethan SD et al. Haemoglobin targets: we were wrong, time to move on. Lancet 2007; 369: 346–350.
Eckardt KU, Scherhag A, Macdougall IC et al. Left ventricular geometry predicts cardiovascular outcomes associated with anemia correction in CKD. J Am Soc Nephrol 2009; 20: 2651–2660.
Kestenbaum B, Sampson JN, Rudser KD et al. Serum phosphate levels and mortality risk among people with chronic kidney disease. J Am Soc Nephrol 2005; 16: 520–528.
Groothoff JW, Gruppen MP, Offringa M et al. Mortality and causes of death of end-stage renal disease in children: a Dutch cohort study. Kidney Int 2002; 61: 621–629.
McDonald SP, Craig JC. Long-term survival of children with end-stage renal disease. N Engl J Med 2004; 350: 2654–2662.
Oh J, Wunsch R, Turzer M et al. Advanced coronary and carotid arteriopathy in young adults with childhood-onset chronic renal failure. Circulation 2002; 106: 100–105.
Parekh RS, Carroll CE, Wolfe RA et al. Cardiovascular mortality in children and young adults with end-stage kidney disease. J Pediatr 2002; 141: 191–197.
Kavey RE, Allada V, Daniels SR et al. Cardiovascular risk reduction in high-risk pediatric patients: a scientific statement from the American Heart Association Expert Panel on Population and Prevention Science; the Councils on Cardiovascular Disease in the Young, Epidemiology and Prevention, Nutrition, Physical Activity and Metabolism, High Blood Pressure Research, Cardiovascular Nursing, and the Kidney in Heart Disease; and the Interdisciplinary Working Group on Quality of Care and Outcomes Research: endorsed by the American Academy of Pediatrics. Circulation 2006; 114: 2710–2738.
Wilson AC, Schneider MF, Cox C et al. Prevalence and correlates of multiple cardiovascular risk factors in children with chronic kidney disease. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2011; 6: 2759–2765.
Litwin M, Wuhl E, Jourdan C et al. Altered morphologic properties of large arteries in children with chronic renal failure and after renal transplantation. J Am Soc Nephrol 2005; 16: 1494–1500.
Mitsnefes MM, Kimball TR, Kartal J et al. Cardiac and vascular adaptation in pediatric patients with chronic kidney disease: role of calcium-phosphorus metabolism. J Am Soc Nephrol 2005; 16: 2796–2803.
Mitsnefes MM. Cardiovascular disease in children with chronic kidney disease. J Am Soc Nephrol 2012; 23: 578–585.
Shroff R, Weaver DJ, Jr., Mitsnefes MM. Cardiovascular complications in children with chronic kidney disease. Nat Rev Nephrol 2011; 7: 642–649.
Halimi JM, Giraudeau B, Vol S et al. Effects of current smoking and smoking discontinuation on renal function and proteinuria in the general population. Kidney Int 2000; 58: 1285–1292.
Boyce ML, Robergs RA, Avasthi PS et al. Exercise training by individuals with predialysis renal failure: cardiorespiratory endurance, hypertension, and renal function. Am J Kidney Dis 1997; 30: 180–192.
Baigent C, Landray MJ, Reith C et al. The effects of lowering LDL cholesterol with simvastatin plus ezetimibe in patients with chronic kidney disease (Study of Heart and Renal Protection): a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet 2011; 377: 2181–2192.
Jardine MJ, Ninomiya T, Perkovic V et al. Aspirin is beneficial in hypertensive patients with chronic kidney disease: a post-hoc subgroup analysis of a randomized controlled trial. J Am Coll Cardiol 2010; 56: 956–965.
Angiolillo DJ, Bernardo E, Capodanno D et al. Impact of chronic kidney disease on platelet function profiles in diabetes mellitus patients with coronary artery disease taking dual antiplatelet therapy. J Am Coll Cardiol 2010; 55: 1139–1146.
Best PJ, Steinhubl SR, Berger PB et al. The efficacy and safety of short- and long-term dual antiplatelet therapy in patients with mild or moderate chronic kidney disease: results from the Clopidogrel for the Reduction of Events During Observation (CREDO) trial. Am Heart J 2008; 155: 687–693.
Graham I, Atar D, Borch-Johnsen K et al. European guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice: executive summary. Fourth Joint Task Force of the European Society of Cardiology and other societies on cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice (constituted by representatives of nine societies and by invited experts). Eur J Cardiovasc Prev Rehabil 2007; 14 (Suppl 2): E1–40.
Hippisley-Cox J, Coupland C, Vinogradova Y et al. Predicting cardiovascular risk in England and Wales: prospective derivation and validation of QRISK2. BMJ 2008; 336: 1475–1482.
Joint British Societies. JBS 2: Joint British Societies’ guidelines on prevention of cardiovascular disease in clinical practice. Heart 2005; 91 (Suppl 5): v1–52.
Wu Y, Liu X, Li X et al. Estimation of 10-year risk of fatal and nonfatal ischemic cardiovascular diseases in Chinese adults. Circulation 2006; 114: 2217–2225.
Liau SY, Izham MI, Hassali MA et al. A literature review of the cardiovascular risk-assessment tools: applicability among Asian population. Heart Asia 2010; 2: 15–18.
Nakayama M, Sato T, Sato H et al. Different clinical outcomes for cardiovascular events and mortality in chronic kidney disease according to underlying renal disease: the Gonryo study. Clin Exp Nephrol 2010; 14: 333–339.
Irie F, Iso H, Sairenchi T et al. The relationships of proteinuria, serum creatinine, glomerular filtration rate with cardiovascular disease mortality in Japanese general population. Kidney Int 2006; 69: 1264–1271.
Yang JG, Li J, Lu C et al. Chronic kidney disease, all-cause mortality and cardiovascular mortality among Chinese patients with established cardiovascular disease. J Atheroscler Thromb 2010; 17: 395–401.
Zhang L, Zuo L, Wang F et al. Cardiovascular disease in early stages of chronic kidney disease in a Chinese population. J Am Soc Nephrol 2006; 17: 2617–2621.
Banerjee D, Chitalia N, Raja R et al. Metabolic syndrome in chronic kidney disease and renal transplant patients in North India. Int Urol Nephrol 2012; 44: 937–943.
Di Angelantonio E, Chowdhury R, Sarwar N et al. Chronic kidney disease and risk of major cardiovascular disease and non-vascular mortality: prospective population based cohort study. BMJ 2010; 341: c4986.
Parikh NI, Hwang SJ, Larson MG et al. Chronic kidney disease as a predictor of cardiovascular disease (from the Framingham Heart Study). Am J Cardiol 2008; 102: 47–53.
Eiland LS, Luttrell PK. Use of statins for dyslipidemia in the pediatric population. J Pediatr Pharmacol Ther 2010; 15: 160–172.
McAlister FA, Ezekowitz J, Tonelli M et al. Renal insufficiency and heart failure: prognostic and therapeutic implications from a prospective cohort study. Circulation 2004; 109: 1004–1009.
Smith GL, Lichtman JH, Bracken MB et al. Renal impairment and outcomes in heart failure: systematic review and meta-analysis. J Am Coll Cardiol 2006; 47: 1987–1996.
Hillege HL, Nitsch D, Pfeffer MA et al. Renal function as a predictor of outcome in a broad spectrum of patients with heart failure. Circulation 2006; 113: 671–678.
Shlipak MG, Smith GL, Rathore SS et al. Renal function, digoxin therapy, and heart failure outcomes: evidence from the digoxin intervention group trial. J Am Soc Nephrol 2004; 15: 2195–2203.
Smith GL, Shlipak MG, Havranek EP et al. Race and renal impairment in heart failure: mortality in blacks versus whites. Circulation 2005; 111: 1270–1277.
Anand IS, Bishu K, Rector TS et al. Proteinuria, chronic kidney disease, and the effect of an angiotensin receptor blocker in addition to an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor in patients with moderate to severe heart failure. Circulation 2009; 120: 1577–1584.
Ezekowitz J, McAlister FA, Humphries KH et al. The association among renal insufficiency, pharmacotherapy, and outcomes in 6,427 patients with heart failure and coronary artery disease. J Am Coll Cardiol 2004; 44: 1587–1592.
Gottlieb SS, Abraham W, Butler J et al. The prognostic importance of different definitions of worsening renal function in congestive heart failure. J Card Fail 2002; 8: 136–141.
Middleton RJ, Parfrey PS, Foley RN. Left ventricular hypertrophy in the renal patient. J Am Soc Nephrol 2001; 12: 1079–1084.
Levin A, Singer J, Thompson CR et al. Prevalent left ventricular hypertrophy in the predialysis population: identifying opportunities for intervention. Am J Kidney Dis 1996; 27: 347–354.
Ha SK, Park HS, Kim SJ et al. Prevalence and patterns of left ventricular hypertrophy in patients with predialysis chronic renal failure. J Korean Med Sci 1998; 13: 488–494.
Parfrey PS, Foley RN, Harnett JD et al. Outcome and risk factors for left ventricular disorders in chronic uraemia. Nephrol Dial Transplant 1996; 11: 1277–1285.
Cerasola G, Nardi E, Palermo A et al. Epidemiology and pathophysiology of left ventricular abnormalities in chronic kidney disease: a review. J Nephrol 2011; 24: 1–10.
Ahmed A, Rich MW, Sanders PW et al. Chronic kidney disease associated mortality in diastolic versus systolic heart failure: a propensity matched study. Am J Cardiol 2007; 99: 393–398.
Lazzeri C, Valente S, Tarquini R et al. Cardiorenal syndrome caused by heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. Int J Nephrol 2011; 634903.
Levin A, Thompson CR, Ethier J et al. Left ventricular mass index increase in early renal disease: impact of decline in hemoglobin. Am J Kidney Dis 1999; 34: 125–134.
Go AS, Yang J, Ackerson LM et al. Hemoglobin level, chronic kidney disease, and the risks of death and hospitalization in adults with chronic heart failure: the Anemia in Chronic Heart Failure: Outcomes and Resource Utilization (ANCHOR) Study. Circulation 2006; 113: 2713–2723.
Shlipak MG, Katz R, Kestenbaum B et al. Clinical and subclinical cardiovascular disease and kidney function decline in the elderly. Atherosclerosis 2009; 204: 298–303.
Balamuthusamy S, Srinivasan L, Verma M et al. Renin angiotensin system blockade and cardiovascular outcomes in patients with chronic kidney disease and proteinuria: a meta-analysis. Am Heart J 2008; 155: 791–805.
Lewis EJ, Hunsicker LG, Clarke WR et al. Renoprotective effect of the angiotensin-receptor antagonist irbesartan in patients with nephropathy due to type 2 diabetes. N Engl J Med 2001; 345: 851–860.
Erdmann E, Lechat P, Verkenne P et al. Results from post-hoc analyses of the CIBIS II trial: effect of bisoprolol in high-risk patient groups with chronic heart failure. Eur J Heart Fail 2001; 3: 469–479.
Wali RK, Iyengar M, Beck GJ et al. Efficacy and safety of carvedilol in treatment of heart failure with chronic kidney disease: a meta-analysis of randomized trials. Circ Heart Fail 2011; 4: 18–26.
Pitt B, Zannad F, Remme WJ et al. The effect of spironolactone on morbidity and mortality in patients with severe heart failure. Randomized Aldactone Evaluation Study Investigators. N Engl J Med 1999; 341: 709–717.
Juurlink DN, Mamdani MM, Lee DS et al. Rates of hyperkalemia after publication of the Randomized Aldactone Evaluation Study. N Engl J Med 2004; 351: 543–551.
Abdel-Qadir HM, Chugh S, Lee DS. Improving prognosis estimation in patients with heart failure and the cardiorenal syndrome. Int J Nephrol 2011; 351672.
Levin ER, Gardner DG, Samson WK. Natriuretic peptides. N Engl J Med 1998; 339: 321–328.
Wiley CL, Switzer SP, Berg RL et al. Association of B-type natriuretic Peptide levels with estimated glomerular filtration rate and congestive heart failure. Clin Med Res 2010; 8: 7–12.
Madsen LH, Ladefoged S, Corell P et al. N-terminal pro brain natriuretic peptide predicts mortality in patients with end-stage renal disease in hemodialysis. Kidney Int 2007; 71: 548–554.
Gustafsson F, Steensgaard-Hansen F, Badskjaer J et al. Diagnostic and prognostic performance of N-terminal ProBNP in primary care patients with suspected heart failure. J Card Fail 2005; 11: S15–20.
McCullough PA, Omland T, Maisel AS. B-type natriuretic peptides: a diagnostic breakthrough for clinicians. Rev Cardiovasc Med 2003; 4: 72–80.
Maisel A, Mehra MR. Understanding B-type natriuretic peptide and its role in diagnosing and monitoring congestive heart failure. Clin Cornerstone 2005; 7 (Suppl 1): S7–17.
Wright SP, Doughty RN, Pearl A et al. Plasma amino-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide and accuracy of heart-failure diagnosis in primary care: a randomized, controlled trial. J Am Coll Cardiol 2003; 42: 1793–1800.
Yamamoto K, Burnett JC, Jr., Jougasaki M et al. Superiority of brain natriuretic peptide as a hormonal marker of ventricular systolic and diastolic dysfunction and ventricular hypertrophy. Hypertension 1996; 28: 988–994.
Burnett JC, Jr., Kao PC, Hu DC et al. Atrial natriuretic peptide elevation in congestive heart failure in the human. Science 1986; 231: 1145–1147.
Mueller C, Laule-Kilian K, Scholer A et al. B-type natriuretic peptide for acute dyspnea in patients with kidney disease: insights from a randomized comparison. Kidney Int 2005; 67: 278–284.
Vickery S, Price CP, John RI et al. B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP) and amino-terminal proBNP in patients with CKD: relationship to renal function and left ventricular hypertrophy. Am J Kidney Dis 2005; 46: 610–620.
Ishibe S, Peixoto AJ. Methods of assessment of volume status and intercompartmental fluid shifts in hemodialysis patients: implications in clinical practice. Semin Dial 2004; 17: 37–43.
Takahashi M, Nagake Y, Ichikawa H et al. Plasma concentrations of natriuretic peptides in patients on hemodialysis. Res Commun Mol Pathol Pharmacol 1996; 92: 19–30.
Tagore R, Ling LH, Yang H et al. Natriuretic peptides in chronic kidney disease. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2008; 3: 1644–1651.
Takami Y, Horio T, Iwashima Y et al. Diagnostic and prognostic value of plasma brain natriuretic peptide in non-dialysis-dependent CRF. Am J Kidney Dis 2004; 44: 420–428.
Zoccali C, Mallamaci F, Benedetto FA et al. Cardiac natriuretic peptides are related to left ventricular mass and function and predict mortality in dialysis patients. J Am Soc Nephrol 2001; 12: 1508–1515.
Suresh M, Farrington K. Natriuretic peptides and the dialysis patient. Semin Dial 2005; 18: 409–419.
Kistorp C, Raymond I, Pedersen F et al. N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide, C-reactive protein, and urinary albumin levels as predictors of mortality and cardiovascular events in older adults. JAMA 2005; 293: 1609–1616.
Bettencourt P, Azevedo A, Pimenta J et al. N-terminal-pro-brain natriuretic peptide predicts outcome after hospital discharge in heart failure patients. Circulation 2004; 110: 2168–2174.
Gardner RS, Ozalp F, Murday AJ et al. N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide. A new gold standard in predicting mortality in patients with advanced heart failure. Eur Heart J 2003; 24: 1735–1743.
Kragelund CB, Gronning BA, Kober L et al. [Prognostic value of N-terminal pro-BNP-type natriuretic peptide in patients with stable coronary heart disease--secondary publication]. Ugeskr Laeger 2006; 168: 697–700.
Omland T, Persson A, Ng L et al. N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide and long-term mortality in acute coronary syndromes. Circulation 2002; 106: 2913–2918.
Olsen MH, Wachtell K, Tuxen C et al. N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide predicts cardiovascular events in patients with hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy: a LIFE study. J Hypertens 2004; 22: 1597–1604.
Koch A, Singer H. Normal values of B type natriuretic peptide in infants, children, and adolescents. Heart 2003; 89: 875–878.
Auerbach SR, Richmond ME, Lamour JM et al. BNP levels predict outcome in pediatric heart failure patients: post hoc analysis of the Pediatric Carvedilol Trial. Circ Heart Fail 2010; 3: 606–611.
Barret BJ, Culleton B. Reducing the burden of cardiovascular disease in patients on dialysis. Dial Transplant 2002; 31: 155–163.
Beciani M, Tedesco A, Violante A et al. Cardiac troponin I (2nd generation assay) in chronic haemodialysis patients: prevalence and prognostic value. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2003; 18: 942–946.
Apple FS, Wu AH. Myocardial infarction redefined: role of cardiac troponin testing. Clin Chem 2001; 47: 377–379.
McLaurin MD, Apple FS, Voss EM et al. Cardiac troponin I, cardiac troponin T, and creatine kinase MB in dialysis patients without ischemic heart disease: evidence of cardiac troponin T expression in skeletal muscle. Clin Chem 1997; 43: 976–982.
Musso P, Cox I, Vidano E et al. Cardiac troponin elevations in chronic renal failure: prevalence and clinical significance. Clin Biochem 1999; 32: 125–130.
Alpert JS, Thygesen K, Antman E et al. Myocardial infarction redefined--a consensus document of The Joint European Society of Cardiology/American College of Cardiology Committee for the redefinition of myocardial infarction. J Am Coll Cardiol 2000; 36: 959–969.
Collinson PO, Boa FG, Gaze DC. Measurement of cardiac troponins. Ann Clin Biochem 2001; 38: 423–449.
Lindahl B, Venge P, Wallentin L. Troponin T identifies patients with unstable coronary artery disease who benefit from long-term antithrombotic protection. Fragmin in Unstable Coronary Artery Disease (FRISC) Study Group. J Am Coll Cardiol 1997; 29: 43–48.
Rabbani LE. Acute coronary syndromes--beyond myocyte necrosis. N Engl J Med 2001; 345: 1057–1059.
Tun A, Khan IA, Win MT et al. Specificity of cardiac troponin I and creatine kinase-MB isoenzyme in asymptomatic long-term hemodialysis patients and effect of hemodialysis on these cardiac markers. Cardiology 1998; 90: 280–285.
Wood GN, Keevil B, Gupta J et al. Serum troponin T measurement in patients with chronic renal impairment predicts survival and vascular disease: a 2 year prospective study. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2003; 18: 1610–1615.
Abbas NA, John RI, Webb MC et al. Cardiac troponins and renal function in nondialysis patients with chronic kidney disease. Clin Chem 2005; 51: 2059–2066.
Kinnunen P, Vuolteenaho O, Ruskoaho H. Mechanisms of atrial and brain natriuretic peptide release from rat ventricular myocardium: effect of stretching. Endocrinology 1993; 132: 1961–1970.
deFilippi C, Wasserman S, Rosanio S et al. Cardiac troponin T and C-reactive protein for predicting prognosis, coronary atherosclerosis, and cardiomyopathy in patients undergoing long-term hemodialysis. JAMA 2003; 290: 353–359.
Hayashi T, Obi Y, Kimura T et al. Cardiac troponin T predicts occult coronary artery stenosis in patients with chronic kidney disease at the start of renal replacement therapy. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2008; 23: 2936–2942.
Roongsritong C, Warraich I, Bradley C. Common causes of troponin elevations in the absence of acute myocardial infarction: incidence and clinical significance. Chest 2004; 125: 1877–1884.
Apple FS, Murakami MM, Pearce LA et al. Multi-biomarker risk stratification of N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, and cardiac troponin T and I in end-stage renal disease for all-cause death. Clin Chem 2004; 50: 2279–2285.
De Zoysa JR. Cardiac troponins and renal disease. Nephrology (Carlton) 2004; 9: 83–88.
Deegan PB, Lafferty ME, Blumsohn A et al. Prognostic value of troponin T in hemodialysis patients is independent of comorbidity. Kidney Int 2001; 60: 2399–2405.
Dierkes J, Domrose U, Westphal S et al. Cardiac troponin T predicts mortality in patients with end-stage renal disease. Circulation 2000; 102: 1964–1969.
Fehr T, Knoflach A, Ammann P et al. Differential use of cardiac troponin T versus I in hemodialysis patients. Clin Nephrol 2003; 59: 35–39.
Francis GS, Tang WH. Cardiac troponins in renal insufficiency and other non-ischemic cardiac conditions. Prog Cardiovasc Dis 2004; 47: 196–206.
Freda BJ, Tang WH, Van Lente F et al. Cardiac troponins in renal insufficiency: review and clinical implications. J Am Coll Cardiol 2002; 40: 2065–2071.
Iliou MC, Fumeron C, Benoit MO et al. Factors associated with increased serum levels of cardiac troponins T and I in chronic haemodialysis patients: Chronic Haemodialysis And New Cardiac Markers Evaluation (CHANCE) study. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2001; 16: 1452–1458.
Lamb EJ, Webb MC, Abbas NA. The significance of serum troponin T in patients with kidney disease: a review of the literature. Ann Clin Biochem 2004; 41: 1–9.
Lowbeer C, Ottosson-Seeberger A, Gustafsson SA et al. Increased cardiac troponin T and endothelin-1 concentrations in dialysis patients may indicate heart disease. Nephrol Dial Transplant 1999; 14: 1948–1955.
Mallamaci F, Zoccali C, Parlongo S et al. Troponin is related to left ventricular mass and predicts all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in hemodialysis patients. Am J Kidney Dis 2002; 40: 68–75.
Needham DM, Shufelt KA, Tomlinson G et al. Troponin I and T levels in renal failure patients without acute coronary syndrome: a systematic review of the literature. Can J Cardiol 2004; 20: 1212–1218.
Ooi DS, Zimmerman D, Graham J et al. Cardiac troponin T predicts long-term outcomes in hemodialysis patients. Clin Chem 2001; 47: 412–417.
Roberts MA, Fernando D, Macmillan N et al. Single and serial measurements of cardiac troponin I in asymptomatic patients on chronic hemodialysis. Clin Nephrol 2004; 61: 40–46.
Collinson PO, Hadcocks L, Foo Y et al. Cardiac troponins in patients with renal dysfunction. Ann Clin Biochem 1998; 35 (Pt 3): 380–386.
Roppolo LP, Fitzgerald R, Dillow J et al. A comparison of troponin T and troponin I as predictors of cardiac events in patients undergoing chronic dialysis at a Veteran's Hospital: a pilot study. J Am Coll Cardiol 1999; 34: 448–454.
de Lemos JA, Drazner MH, Omland T et al. Association of troponin T detected with a highly sensitive assay and cardiac structure and mortality risk in the general population. JAMA 2010; 304: 2503–2512.
Haller C, Zehelein J, Remppis A et al. Cardiac troponin T in patients with end-stage renal disease: absence of expression in truncal skeletal muscle. Clin Chem 1998; 44: 930–938.
Abaci A, Ekici E, Oguzhan A et al. Cardiac troponins T and I in patients with end-stage renal disease: the relation with left ventricular mass and their prognostic value. Clin Cardiol 2004; 27: 704–709.
Ooi DS, House AA. Cardiac troponin T in hemodialyzed patients. Clin Chem 1998; 44: 1410–1416.
Parfrey PS, Foley RN. The clinical epidemiology of cardiac disease in chronic renal failure. J Am Soc Nephrol 1999; 10: 1606–1615.
Roberts MA, Hedley AJ, Ierino FL. Understanding cardiac biomarkers in end-stage kidney disease: Frequently asked questions and the promise of clinical application. Nephrology (Carlton) 2011; 16: 251–260.
Hirsch R, Landt Y, Porter S et al. Cardiac troponin I in pediatrics: normal values and potential use in the assessment of cardiac injury. J Pediatr 1997; 130: 872–877.
Liesemer K, Casper TC, Korgenski K et al. Use and misuse of serum troponin assays in pediatric practice. Am J Cardiol 2012; 110: 284–289.
Lentine KL, Hurst FP, Jindal RM et al. Cardiovascular risk assessment among potential kidney transplant candidates: approaches and controversies. Am J Kidney Dis 2010; 55: 152–167.
McIntyre CW, Odudu A, Eldehni MT. Cardiac assessment in chronic kidney disease. Curr Opin Nephrol Hypertens 2009; 18: 501–506.
Bennett WM, Kloster F, Rosch J et al. Natural history of asymptomatic coronary arteriographic lesions in diabetic patients with end-stage renal disease. Am J Med 1978; 65: 779–784.
Braun WE, Phillips DF, Vidt DG et al. Coronary artery disease in 100 diabetics with end-stage renal failure. Transplant Proc 1984; 16: 603–607.
Lorber MI, Van Buren CT, Flechner SM et al. Pretransplant coronary arteriography for diabetic renal transplant recipients. Transplant Proc 1987; 19: 1539–1541.
Manske CL, Wilson RF, Wang Y et al. Prevalence of, and risk factors for, angiographically determined coronary artery disease in type I-diabetic patients with nephropathy. Arch Intern Med 1992; 152: 2450–2455.
Weinrauch L, D’Elia JA, Healy RW et al. Asymptomatic coronary artery disease: angiographic assessment of diabetics evaluated for renal transplantation. Circulation 1978; 58: 1184–1190.
Klocke FJ, Baird MG, Lorell BH et al. ACC/AHA/ASNC guidelines for the clinical use of cardiac radionuclide imaging--executive summary: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines (ACC/AHA/ASNC Committee to Revise the 1995 Guidelines for the Clinical Use of Cardiac Radionuclide Imaging). J Am Coll Cardiol 2003; 42: 1318–1333.
Dahan M, Viron BM, Faraggi M et al. Diagnostic accuracy and prognostic value of combined dipyridamole-exercise thallium imaging in hemodialysis patients. Kidney Int 1998; 54: 255–262.
Koistinen MJ, Huikuri HV, Pirttiaho H et al. Evaluation of exercise electrocardiography and thallium tomographic imaging in detecting asymptomatic coronary artery disease in diabetic patients. Br Heart J 1990; 63: 7–11.
Marwick TH, Steinmuller DR, Underwood DA et al. Ineffectiveness of dipyridamole SPECT thallium imaging as a screening technique for coronary artery disease in patients with end-stage renal failure. Transplantation 1990; 49: 100–103.
Schmidt A, Stefenelli T, Schuster E et al. Informational contribution of noninvasive screening tests for coronary artery disease in patients on chronic renal replacement therapy. Am J Kidney Dis 2001; 37: 56–63.
Morrow CE, Schwartz JS, Sutherland DE et al. Predictive value of thallium stress testing for coronary and cardiovascular events in uremic diabetic patients before renal transplantation. Am J Surg 1983; 146: 331–335.
Patel AD, Abo-Auda WS, Davis JM et al. Prognostic value of myocardial perfusion imaging in predicting outcome after renal transplantation. Am J Cardiol 2003; 92: 146–151.
Rabbat CG, Treleaven DJ, Russell JD et al. Prognostic value of myocardial perfusion studies in patients with end-stage renal disease assessed for kidney or kidney-pancreas transplantation: a meta-analysis. J Am Soc Nephrol 2003; 14: 431–439.
Wong CF, Little MA, Vinjamuri S et al. Technetium myocardial perfusion scanning in prerenal transplant evaluation in the United kingdom. Transplant Proc 2008; 40: 1324–1328.
De Lima JJ, Sabbaga E, Vieira ML et al. Coronary angiography is the best predictor of events in renal transplant candidates compared with noninvasive testing. Hypertension 2003; 42: 263–268.
Hatta T, Nishimura S, Nishimura T. Prognostic risk stratification of myocardial ischaemia evaluated by gated myocardial perfusion SPECT in patients with chronic kidney disease. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2009; 36: 1835–1841.
Kusuoka H, Nishimura S, Yamashina A et al. Surveillance study for creating the national clinical database related to ECG-gated myocardial perfusion SPECT of ischemic heart disease: J-ACCESS study design. Ann Nucl Med 2006; 20: 195–202.
Momose M, Babazono T, Kondo C et al. Prognostic significance of stress myocardial ECG-gated perfusion imaging in asymptomatic patients with diabetic chronic kidney disease on initiation of haemodialysis. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2009; 36: 1315–1321.
Nakajima K, Nishimura T. Inter-institution preference-based variability of ejection fraction and volumes using quantitative gated SPECT with 99mTc-tetrofosmin: a multicentre study involving 106 hospitals. Eur J Nucl Med Mol Imaging 2006; 33: 127–133.
Nekolla SG, Reder S, Saraste A et al. Evaluation of the novel myocardial perfusion positron-emission tomography tracer 18F-BMS-747158-02: comparison to 13N-ammonia and validation with microspheres in a pig model. Circulation 2009; 119: 2333–2342.
Biomarkers Definitions Working Group. Biomarkers and surrogate endpoints: preferred definitions and conceptual framework. Clin Pharmacol Ther 2001; 69: 89–95.
Ix JH, Criqui MH. Epidemiology and diagnosis of peripheral arterial disease in patients with chronic kidney disease. Adv Chronic Kidney Dis 2008; 15: 378–383.
Lau JF, Weinberg MD, Olin JW. Peripheral artery disease. Part 1: clinical evaluation and noninvasive diagnosis. Nat Rev Cardiol 2011; 8: 405–418.
Bello AK, Hemmelgarn B, Lloyd A et al. Associations among estimated glomerular filtration rate, proteinuria, and adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2011; 6: 1418–1426.
de Vinuesa SG, Ortega M, Martinez P et al. Subclinical peripheral arterial disease in patients with chronic kidney disease: prevalence and related risk factors. Kidney Int Suppl 2005; 93: S44–47.
Lash JP, Go AS, Appel LJ et al. Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) Study: baseline characteristics and associations with kidney function. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2009; 4: 1302–1311.
Liew YP, Bartholomew JR, Demirjian S et al. Combined effect of chronic kidney disease and peripheral arterial disease on all-cause mortality in a high-risk population. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2008; 3: 1084–1089.
O’Hare AM, Glidden DV, Fox CS et al. High prevalence of peripheral arterial disease in persons with renal insufficiency: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999–2000. Circulation 2004; 109: 320–323.
O’Hare AM, Newman AB, Katz R et al. Cystatin C and incident peripheral arterial disease events in the elderly: results from the Cardiovascular Health Study. Arch Intern Med 2005; 165: 2666–2670.
O’Hare AM, Vittinghoff E, Hsia J et al. Renal insufficiency and the risk of lower extremity peripheral arterial disease: results from the Heart and Estrogen/Progestin Replacement Study (HERS). J Am Soc Nephrol 2004; 15: 1046–1051.
Wattanakit K, Folsom AR, Criqui MH et al. Albuminuria and peripheral arterial disease: results from the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis (MESA). Atherosclerosis 2008; 201: 212–216.
Margolis DJ, Hofstad O, Feldman HI. Association between renal failure and foot ulcer or lower-extremity amputation in patients with diabetes. Diabetes Care 2008; 31: 1331–1336.
Fuster V, Ryden LE, Cannom DS et al. ACC/AHA/ESC 2006 Guidelines for the Management of Patients with Atrial Fibrillation: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines and the European Society of Cardiology Committee for Practice Guidelines (Writing Committee to Revise the 2001 Guidelines for the Management of Patients With Atrial Fibrillation): developed in collaboration with the European Heart Rhythm Association and the Heart Rhythm Society. Circulation 2006; 114: e257–354.
Abbas AE, Goodman LM, Timmis R et al. Predictors of poor outcome in female patients undergoing endovascular intervention. J Interv Cardiol 2010; 23: 401–410.
O’Hare AM, Bertenthal D, Sidawy AN et al. Renal insufficiency and use of revascularization among a national cohort of men with advanced lower extremity peripheral arterial disease. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2006; 1: 297–304.
Goodman and Gilman's Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 12th Edn. Brunston LL, Chabner BA, Knollman BA (eds). McGraw-Hill: New York, 2011.
Martindale: The Complete Drug Reference, 37th Edn. Sweetman SC (ed). Royal Pharmaceutical Society, London, 2011.
Gokmen MR, Lord GM. Aristolochic acid nephropathy. BMJ 2012; 344: e4000.
Su T, Zhang L, Li X et al. Regular use of nephrotoxic medications is an independent risk factor for chronic kidney disease--results from a Chinese population study. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2011; 26: 1916–1923.
National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence. NICE Clinical Guideline 38: Bipolar Disorder. 2006.
Lipska KJ, Bailey CJ, Inzucchi SE. Use of metformin in the setting of mild-to-moderate renal insufficiency. Diabetes Care 2011; 34: 1431–1437.
Rachmani R, Slavachevski I, Levi Z et al. Metformin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: reconsideration of traditional contraindications. Eur J Intern Med 2002; 13: 428.
Salpeter S, Greyber E, Pasternak G et al. Risk of fatal and nonfatal lactic acidosis with metformin use in type 2 diabetes mellitus. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2010: CD002967.
Fellstrom BC, Jardine AG, Schmieder RE et al. Rosuvastatin and cardiovascular events in patients undergoing hemodialysis. N Engl J Med 2009; 360: 1395–1407.
Ginsberg HN, Elam MB, Lovato LC et al. Effects of combination lipid therapy in type 2 diabetes mellitus. N Engl J Med 2010; 362: 1563–1574.
Keech A, Simes RJ, Barter P et al. Effects of long-term fenofibrate therapy on cardiovascular events in 9795 people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (the FIELD study): randomised controlled trial. Lancet 2005; 366: 1849–1861.
Wanner C, Krane V, Marz W et al. Atorvastatin in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus undergoing hemodialysis. N Engl J Med 2005; 353: 238–248.
Limdi NA, Beasley TM, Baird MF et al. Kidney function influences warfarin responsiveness and hemorrhagic complications. J Am Soc Nephrol 2009; 20: 912–921.
Wahba IM, Olyaei AJ, Rozansky D et al. Handling of drugs in children with abnormal renal function, in Pediatric Nephrology, eds. Avner ED, Harmon WE, Niaudet P, Yoshikawa, N. Springer-Verlag: 2009, pp 1693–1711.
Blowey DL. Chapter 64: Drug Use and Dosage in Renal Failure, in Comprehensive Pediatric Nephrology, eds. Geary DF, Schaefer F. Mosby Elsevier: Philadelphia, 2008, pp 991–1002.
Drug prescribing in renal failure. http://www.kdp-baptist.louisville.edu/renalbook/.
Goldfarb S, McCullough PA, McDermott J et al. Contrast-induced acute kidney injury: specialty-specific protocols for interventional radiology, diagnostic computed tomography radiology, and interventional cardiology. Mayo Clin Proc 2009; 84: 170–179.
American College Radiology Guidelines. Manual on Contrast Media Version 8. http://www.acr.org/~/media/ACR/Documents/PDF/QualitySafety/Resources/Contrast%20Manual/Contrast%20Nephrotoxicity.pdf. Accessed October 12, 2012.
European Society for Urological Radiology (ESUR). http://www.esur.org/Contrast-media.51.0.html, Accessed October 9, 2012.
Heinrich MC, Haberle L, Muller V et al. Nephrotoxicity of iso-osmolar iodixanol compared with nonionic low-osmolar contrast media: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Radiology 2009; 250: 68–86.
Perazella MA. Current status of gadolinium toxicity in patients with kidney disease. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2009; 4: 461–469.
Agarwal R, Brunelli SM, Williams K et al. Gadolinium-based contrast agents and nephrogenic systemic fibrosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2009; 24: 856–863.
American College Radiology Guidelines. Manual on Contrast Media Version 8. http://www.acr.org/~/media/ACR/Documents/PDF/QualitySafety/Resources/Contrast%20Manual/Nephrogenic%20Systemic%20Fibrosis.pdf. Accessed October 12, 2012.
Saitoh T, Hayasaka K, Tanaka Y et al. Dialyzability of gadodiamide in hemodialysis patients. Radiat Med 2006; 24: 445–451.
Meng H, Grosse-Wortmann L. Gadolinium in pediatric cardiovascular magnetic resonance: what we know and how we practice. J Cardiovasc Magn Reson 2012; 14: 56.
Lien YH. Is bowel preparation before colonoscopy a risky business for the kidney? Nat Clin Pract Nephrol 2008; 4: 606–614.
Markowitz GS, Perazella MA. Acute phosphate nephropathy. Kidney Int 2009; 76: 1027–1034.
Heher EC, Thier SO, Rennke H et al. Adverse renal and metabolic effects associated with oral sodium phosphate bowel preparation. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2008; 3: 1494–1503.
Palmadottir VK, Gudmundsson H, Hardarson S et al. Incidence and outcome of acute phosphate nephropathy in Iceland. PLoS One 2010; 5: e13484.
Wexner SD, Beck DE, Baron TH et al. A consensus document on bowel preparation before colonoscopy: prepared by a task force from the American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons (ASCRS), the American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ASGE), and the Society of American Gastrointestinal and Endoscopic Surgeons (SAGES). Gastrointest Endosc 2006; 63: 894–909.
Brunelli SM. Association between oral sodium phosphate bowel preparations and kidney injury: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Kidney Dis 2009; 53: 448–456.
Johanson JF, Popp JW, Jr., Cohen LB et al. A randomized, multicenter study comparing the safety and efficacy of sodium phosphate tablets with 2 L polyethylene glycol solution plus bisacodyl tablets for colon cleansing. Am J Gastroenterol 2007; 102: 2238–2246.
Foley RN, Guo H, Snyder JJ et al. Septicemia in the United States dialysis population, 1991 to 1999. J Am Soc Nephrol 2004; 15: 1038–1045.
Hoen B, Paul-Dauphin A, Hestin D et al. EPIBACDIAL: a multicenter prospective study of risk factors for bacteremia in chronic hemodialysis patients. J Am Soc Nephrol 1998; 9: 869–876.
Ishani A, Collins AJ, Herzog CA et al. Septicemia, access and cardiovascular disease in dialysis patients: the USRDS Wave 2 study. Kidney Int 2005; 68: 311–318.
Sarnak MJ, Jaber BL. Mortality caused by sepsis in patients with end-stage renal disease compared with the general population. Kidney Int 2000; 58: 1758–1764.
Fried LF, Katz R, Sarnak MJ et al. Kidney function as a predictor of noncardiovascular mortality. J Am Soc Nephrol 2005; 16: 3728–3735.
Nissenson AR, Collins AJ, Hurley J et al. Opportunities for improving the care of patients with chronic renal insufficiency: current practice patterns. J Am Soc Nephrol 2001; 12: 1713–1720.
US Renal Data System. Atlas of Chronic Kidney Disease in the United States. Bethesda, MD: National Institutes of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health. 2007.
Naqvi SB, Collins AJ. Infectious complications in chronic kidney disease. Adv Chronic Kidney Dis 2006; 13: 199–204.
US Renal Data System. Atlas of Chronic Kidney Disease in the United States. Bethesda, MD: National Institutes of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, National Institutes of Health. 2010.
McIntyre P, Craig JC. Prevention of serious bacterial infection in children with nephrotic syndrome. J Paediatr Child Health 1998; 34: 314–317.
Vanholder R, Ringoir S. Infectious morbidity and defects of phagocytic function in end-stage renal disease: a review. J Am Soc Nephrol 1993; 3: 1541–1554.
Cohen G, Haag-Weber M, Horl WH. Immune dysfunction in uremia. Kidney Int Suppl 1997; 62: S79–82.
Minnaganti VR, Cunha BA. Infections associated with uremia and dialysis. Infect Dis Clin North Am 2001; 15: 385–406.
Pesanti EL. Immunologic defects and vaccination in patients with chronic renal failure. Infect Dis Clin North Am 2001; 15: 813–832.
Kausz AT, Guo H, Pereira BJ et al. General medical care among patients with chronic kidney disease: opportunities for improving outcomes. J Am Soc Nephrol 2005; 16: 3092–3101.
DaRoza G, Loewen A, Djurdjev O et al. Stage of chronic kidney disease predicts seroconversion after hepatitis B immunization: earlier is better. Am J Kidney Dis 2003; 42: 1184–1192.
Kausz AT, Gilbertson DT. Overview of vaccination in chronic kidney disease. Adv Chronic Kidney Dis 2006; 13: 209–214.
McNulty CA, Bowen JK, Williams AJ. Hepatitis B vaccination in predialysis chronic renal failure patients a comparison of two vaccination schedules. Vaccine 2005; 23: 4142–4147.
Robinson J. Efficacy of pneumococcal immunization in patients with renal disease--what is the data? Am J Nephrol 2004; 24: 402–409.
Gilbertson DT, Unruh M, McBean AM et al. Influenza vaccine delivery and effectiveness in end-stage renal disease. Kidney Int 2003; 63: 738–743.
Dinits-Pensy M, Forrest GN, Cross AS et al. The use of vaccines in adult patients with renal disease. Am J Kidney Dis 2005; 46: 997–1011.
Nikoskelainen J, Koskela M, Forsstrom J et al. Persistence of antibodies to pneumococcal vaccine in patients with chronic renal failure. Kidney Int 1985; 28: 672–677.
Miller ER, Alter MJ, Tokars JI. Protective effect of hepatitis B vaccine in chronic hemodialysis patients. Am J Kidney Dis 1999; 33: 356–360.
Fattom A, Fuller S, Propst M et al. Safety and immunogenicity of a booster dose of Staphylococcus aureus types 5 and 8 capsular polysaccharide conjugate vaccine (StaphVAX) in hemodialysis patients. Vaccine 2004; 23: 656–663.
Shinefield H, Black S, Fattom A et al. Use of a Staphylococcus aureus conjugate vaccine in patients receiving hemodialysis. N Engl J Med 2002; 346: 491–496.
CDC immunization schedules. http://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/schedules/index.html.
American Academy of Pediatrics. Immunization: http://www2.aap.org/immunization/.
Neu AM. Immunizations in children with chronic kidney disease. Pediatr Nephrol 2012; 27: 1257–1263.
Goldstein SL. Acute kidney injury in children: prevention, treatment and rehabilitation. Contrib Nephrol 2011; 174: 163–172.
Goldstein SL. Acute kidney injury in children and its potential consequences in adulthood. Blood Purif 2012; 33: 131–137.
Zappitelli M, Goldstein SL. Acute kidney failure in children, In: Jorres A, Ronco C, Kellum JA (eds.). Management of Acute Kidney Problems, Springer, 2010, pp 459–467.
Andreoli SP. Clinical evaluation of acute kidney injury in children. In: Avner ED, Harmon WE, Niaudet P, Yoshikawa N (eds.). Pediatric Nephrology, (6th edn.). Springer, 2009, pp 1603–1618.
Zappitelli M, Goldstein SL. Management of acute kidney failure, In: Avner ED, Harmon WE, Niaudet P, Yoshikawa N (eds.). Pediatric Nephrology (6th edn), Springer, 2009, pp 1619–1628.
Zappitelli M, Goldstein SL. Acute kidney injury: General aspects. In: Kiessling SG, Goebel J, Somers MJG (eds.). Pediatric Nephrology in the ICU, Springer, 2009, pp 85–97.
Arora P, Kausz AT, Obrador GT et al. Hospital utilization among chronic dialysis patients. J Am Soc Nephrol 2000; 11: 740–746.
Khan SS, Kazmi WH, Abichandani R et al. Health care utilization among patients with chronic kidney disease. Kidney Int 2002; 62: 229–236.
Becker BN, Coomer RW, Fotiadis C et al. Risk factors for hospitalization in well-dialyzed chronic hemodialysis patients. Am J Nephrol 1999; 19: 565–570.
Popovic JR, Kozak LJ. National hospital discharge survey: annual summary, 1998. Vital Health Stat 13 2000: 1–194.
Rocco MV, Soucie JM, Reboussin DM et al. Risk factors for hospital utilization in chronic dialysis patients. Southeastern Kidney Council (Network 6). J Am Soc Nephrol 1996; 7: 889–896.
Thamer M, Ray NF, Fehrenbach SN et al. Relative risk and economic consequences of inpatient care among patients with renal failure. J Am Soc Nephrol 1996; 7: 751–762.
Holland DC, Lam M. Predictors of hospitalization and death among pre-dialysis patients: a retrospective cohort study. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2000; 15: 650–658.
Culleton BF, Larson MG, Wilson PW et al. Cardiovascular disease and mortality in a community-based cohort with mild renal insufficiency. Kidney Int 1999; 56: 2214–2219.
Meyer KB, Levey AS. Controlling the epidemic of cardiovascular disease in chronic renal disease: report from the National Kidney Foundation Task Force on cardiovascular disease. J Am Soc Nephrol 1998; 9: S31–42.
Drüeke TB, Locatelli F, Clyne N et al. Normalization of hemoglobin level in patients with chronic kidney disease and anemia. N Engl J Med 2006; 355: 2071–2084.
Singh AK, Szczech L, Tang KL et al. Correction of anemia with epoetin alfa in chronic kidney disease. N Engl J Med 2006; 355: 2085–2098.
De Coster C, McLaughlin K, Noseworthy TW. Criteria for referring patients with renal disease for nephrology consultation: a review of the literature. J Nephrol 2010; 23: 399–407.
Navaneethan SD, Kandula P, Jeevanantham V et al. Referral patterns of primary care physicians for chronic kidney disease in general population and geriatric patients. Clin Nephrol 2010; 73: 260–267.
Navaneethan SD, Nigwekar S, Sengodan M et al. Referral to nephrologists for chronic kidney disease care: is non-diabetic kidney disease ignored? Nephron Clin Pract 2007; 106: c113–118.
Chan MR, Dall AT, Fletcher KE et al. Outcomes in patients with chronic kidney disease referred late to nephrologists: a meta-analysis. Am J Med 2007; 120: 1063–1070.
Smart NA, Titus TT. Outcomes of early versus late nephrology referral in chronic kidney disease: a systematic review. Am J Med 2011; 124: 1073–1080.
McLaughlin K, Manns B, Culleton B et al. An economic evaluation of early versus late referral of patients with progressive renal insufficiency. Am J Kidney Dis 2001; 38: 1122–1128.
Klebe B, Irving J, Stevens PE et al. The cost of implementing UK guidelines for the management of chronic kidney disease. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2007; 22: 2504–2512.
Barakat AJ. Presentation of the child with renal disease and guidelines for referral to the pediatric nephrologist. Int J Pediatr 2012; 978673.
Barakat AJ, Chesney RW (eds.). Pediatric Nephrology for Primary Care. American Academy of Pediatrics: Illinois, 2009.
Kennedy SE, Bailey R, Kainer G. Causes and outcome of late referral of children who develop end-stage kidney disease. J Paediatr Child Health 2012; 48: 253–258.
Boehm M, Winkelmayer WC, Arbeiter K et al. Late referral to paediatric renal failure service impairs access to pre-emptive kidney transplantation in children. Arch Dis Child 2010; 95: 634–638.
Epping-Jordan JE, Pruitt SD, Bengoa R et al. Improving the quality of health care for chronic conditions. Qual Saf Health Care 2004; 13: 299–305.
Ajarmeh S, Er L, Brin G et al. The effect of a multidisciplinary care clinic on the outcomes in pediatric chronic kidney disease. Pediatr Nephrol 2012; 27: 1921–1927.
Menon S, Valentini RP, Kapur G et al. Effectiveness of a multidisciplinary clinic in managing children with chronic kidney disease. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2009; 4: 1170–1175.
Korevaar JC, Jansen MA, Dekker FW et al. When to initiate dialysis: effect of proposed US guidelines on survival. Lancet 2001; 358: 1046–1050.
Traynor JP, Simpson K, Geddes CC et al. Early initiation of dialysis fails to prolong survival in patients with end-stage renal failure. J Am Soc Nephrol 2002; 13: 2125–2132.
Beddhu S, Samore MH, Roberts MS et al. Impact of timing of initiation of dialysis on mortality. J Am Soc Nephrol 2003; 14: 2305–2312.
Clark WF, Na Y, Rosansky SJ et al. Association between estimated glomerular filtration rate at initiation of dialysis and mortality. CMAJ 2011; 183: 47–53.
Hwang SJ, Yang WC, Lin MY et al. Impact of the clinical conditions at dialysis initiation on mortality in incident haemodialysis patients: a national cohort study in Taiwan. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2010; 25: 2616–2624.
Kazmi WH, Gilbertson DT, Obrador GT et al. Effect of comorbidity on the increased mortality associated with early initiation of dialysis. Am J Kidney Dis 2005; 46: 887–896.
Lassalle M, Labeeuw M, Frimat L et al. Age and comorbidity may explain the paradoxical association of an early dialysis start with poor survival. Kidney Int 2010; 77: 700–707.
Sawhney S, Djurdjev O, Simpson K et al. Survival and dialysis initiation: comparing British Columbia and Scotland registries. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2009; 24: 3186–3192.
Shiao CC, Huang JW, Chien KL et al. Early initiation of dialysis and late implantation of catheters adversely affect outcomes of patients on chronic peritoneal dialysis. Perit Dial Int 2008; 28: 73–81.
Stel VS, Dekker FW, Ansell D et al. Residual renal function at the start of dialysis and clinical outcomes. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2009; 24: 3175–3182.
Tang SC, Ho YW, Tang AW et al. Delaying initiation of dialysis till symptomatic uraemia--is it too late? Nephrol Dial Transplant 2007; 22: 1926–1932.
Wilson B, Harwood L, Locking-Cusolito H et al. Optimal timing of initiation of chronic hemodialysis? Hemodial Int 2007; 11: 263–269.
Wright S, Klausner D, Baird B et al. Timing of dialysis initiation and survival in ESRD. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2010; 5: 1828–1835.
Cooper BA, Branley P, Bulfone L et al. A randomized, controlled trial of early versus late initiation of dialysis. N Engl J Med 2010; 363: 609–619.
Rosansky SJ, Eggers P, Jackson K et al. Early start of hemodialysis may be harmful. Arch Intern Med 2011; 171: 396–403.
Harris A, Cooper BA, Li JJ et al. Cost-effectiveness of initiating dialysis early: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Kidney Dis 2011; 57: 707–715.
Greenbaum LA, Schaefer F. The decision to initiate dialysis in a pediatric patient. In: Warady BA, Schaefer F, Alexander SR (eds). Pediatric Dialysis, Springer: New York, 2012, pp 85–100.
Kramer A, Stel VS, Tizard J et al. Characteristics and survival of young adults who started renal replacement therapy during childhood. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2009; 24: 926–933.
Davison SN. Pain in hemodialysis patients: prevalence, cause, severity, and management. Am J Kidney Dis 2003; 42: 1239–1247.
Davison SN, Jhangri GS, Johnson JA. Cross-sectional validity of a modified Edmonton symptom assessment system in dialysis patients: a simple assessment of symptom burden. Kidney Int 2006; 69: 1621–1625.
Davison SN, Jhangri GS, Johnson JA. Longitudinal validation of a modified Edmonton symptom assessment system (ESAS) in haemodialysis patients. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2006; 21: 3189–3195.
Murphy EL, Murtagh FE, Carey I et al. Understanding symptoms in patients with advanced chronic kidney disease managed without dialysis: use of a short patient-completed assessment tool. Nephron Clin Pract 2009; 111: c74–80.
Murtagh FE, Addington-Hall JM, Donohoe P et al. Symptom management in patients with established renal failure managed without dialysis. EDTNA ERCA J 2006; 32: 93–98.
Murtagh FE, Addington-Hall JM, Edmonds PM et al. Symptoms in advanced renal disease: a cross-sectional survey of symptom prevalence in stage 5 chronic kidney disease managed without dialysis. J Palliat Med 2007; 10: 1266–1276.
Saini T, Murtagh FE, Dupont PJ et al. Comparative pilot study of symptoms and quality of life in cancer patients and patients with end stage renal disease. Palliat Med 2006; 20: 631–636.
Temel JS, Greer JA, Muzikansky A et al. Early palliative care for patients with metastatic non-small-cell lung cancer. N Engl J Med 2010; 363: 733–742.
Chandna SM, Da Silva-Gane M, Marshall C et al. Survival of elderly patients with stage 5 CKD: comparison of conservative management and renal replacement therapy. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2011; 26: 1608–1614.
Davison SN. End-of-life care preferences and needs: perceptions of patients with chronic kidney disease. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2010; 5: 195–204.
Davison SN, Murtagh FE, Higginson IJ. Methodological considerations for end-of-life research in patients with chronic kidney disease. J Nephrol 2008; 21: 268–282.
De Biase V, Tobaldini O, Boaretti C et al. Prolonged conservative treatment for frail elderly patients with end-stage renal disease: the Verona experience. Nephrol Dial Transplant 2008; 23: 1313–1317.
Ellam T, El-Kossi M, Prasanth KC et al. Conservatively managed patients with stage 5 chronic kidney disease--outcomes from a single center experience. QJM 2009; 102: 547–554.
Germain MJ, Kurella Tamura M, Davison SN. Palliative care in CKD: the earlier the better. Am J Kidney Dis 2011; 57: 378–380.
Murray AM, Arko C, Chen SC et al. Use of hospice in the United States dialysis population. Clin J Am Soc Nephrol 2006; 1: 1248–1255.
Hearn J, Higginson IJ. Do specialist palliative care teams improve outcomes for cancer patients? A systematic literature review. Palliat Med 1998; 12: 317–332.
Higginson IJ, Wade AM, McCarthy M. Effectiveness of two palliative support teams. J Public Health Med 1992; 14: 50–56.
Ventafridda V, De Conno F, Vigano A et al. Comparison of home and hospital care of advanced cancer patients. Tumori 1989; 75: 619–625.
Wallston KA, Burger C, Smith RA et al. Comparing the quality of death for hospice and non-hospice cancer patients. Med Care 1988; 26: 177–182.
Fassbender K, Smythe JG, Carson M, et al. Report of the Institute for Public Economics Health Research Group to Alberta Health and Wellness: cost and utilization of health care services at end of life in Alberta, 1999–2002. Edmonton, AB: University of Alberta. 2006.
Owens DK, Lohr KN, Atkins D et al. AHRQ series paper 5: grading the strength of a body of evidence when comparing medical interventions--agency for healthcare research and quality and the effective health-care program. J Clin Epidemiol 2010; 63: 513–523.
Atkins D, Best D, Briss PA et al. Grading quality of evidence and strength of recommendations. BMJ 2004; 328: 1490.
Guyatt GH, Oxman AD, Kunz R et al. Going from evidence to recommendations. BMJ 2008; 336: 1049–1051.
Uhlig K, Macleod A, Craig J et al. Grading evidence and recommendations for clinical practice guidelines in nephrology. A position statement from Kidney Disease: Improving Global Outcomes (KDIGO). Kidney Int 2006; 70: 2058–2065.
The AGREE Collaboration. Development and validation of an international appraisal instrument for assessing the quality of clinical practice guidelines: the AGREE project. Qual Saf Health Care 2003; 12: 18–23.
Shiffman RN, Shekelle P, Overhage JM et al. Standardized reporting of clinical practice guidelines: a proposal from the Conference on Guideline Standardization. Ann Intern Med 2003; 139: 493–498.
Institute of Medicine. Finding What Works in Health Care: Standards for Systematic Reviews. The National Academies Press: Washington, DC, 2011.
Institute of Medicine. Clinical Practice Guidelines We Can Trust. The National Academies Press: Washington, DC, 2011.
User LicenseElsevier user license |
For non-commercial purposes:
- Read, print & download
- Text & data mine
- Translate the article
- Reuse portions or extracts from the article in other works
- Redistribute or republish the final article
- Sell or re-use for commercial purposes
Elsevier's open access license policy